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戴震对宋明理学的批判

更新时间 2009-12-6 17:58:36 点击数:

戴震对宋明理学的批判
【摘要】 戴震对理学的批判,尤其是针对理学的诸多政治社会危害而发的批判,缘于他坎坷的人生经历首先俾使其能够对黑暗时政、社会有着洞悉切察,而强烈的经世精神与耿直不屈的性格则又驱使其敢于将理学之种种危害揭发出来,并勇于将批判矛头直指推行、滥用理学工具的封建统治者与社会强势群体,从实践层面发出“以理杀人”的激愤之语,从而使其在对理学这种意识形态的学术批判中时常闪耀着政治批判与社会批判的锋芒。同时,其卓著的汉学成就及由训诂探求义理的独特学术路径,又可使戴震在学理层面揭示理学与孔孟儒学在风貌、精髓上的诸种差异,并揭露理学与佛、老之学在致思、旨趣上的近似特征。循本其所独创的“自然—必然”观这个哲学理论基石,戴震力驳理学的理本论宇宙观、二元人性论、存理灭欲的伦理观、重行轻知的认识论与复初内求的修为工夫论,并相应建立其气化流行的天道观、血气心知为性的自然人性论、遂欲达情的伦理观,重学尚智的认识论与工夫论。尽管戴震对理学的批判,未能在考据盛行的学界赢得广泛同情与赞誉,“知音”甚少,但其对儒学批判与经世两大优良传统的复苏、开扬,亦承继和发展了清初三大家的启蒙思想,具有顺乎时代潮流的重要意义。此外,戴震对理学的批判,打破乾嘉思想界的沉寂局面,承续并推进了明清“气学”、“实学”思潮取易宋明“理学”的趋势,开创了乾嘉新义理学。其所树立的“感性启蒙”与“知性启蒙”的两大典范,亦泽披后学、绵延近世。不过,其借助疏证《孟子》,推阐己意的理学批判手段,在一定程度上亦造成《孟子》思想本身的“扁平化”。 

【Abstract】 Dai-zhen's criticism of Neo-Confucianism, especially much of political and social harm of Neo-confucianism, can be attributed to his bumpy life experience which enabled him to have a clear awareness of dark politics and society , the deep country-governing spirit and unyielding character which both stimulated him to expose various harm of Neo-confucianism , straight criticized contemporary rulers and superior group abusing the means of Neo-confucianism. Dai-zhen's wrathful word of "kill people with Neo-confucianism" from practical aspect made his acedemic criticism of Neo-confucianism acting as ideology full of the sparkle of political and social criticism. In the meanwhile, his splendid Han theory achivement and peculiar academic route also spured him to reveal external and sprititual differences between Neo-confucianism and Confucianism, exposed approximate characteristics in thingking patten and objective. Based on his creative philosophical theory of "nature-certainty", Dai-zhen reputed cosmics considering principle as origin and essence, dual humanity theory , ethics despising emotion and desire, epistemology putting emphasis on practice than theory, accomplishment theory relying on himself . Accordingly, Dai-zhen built such theory as cosmics adovacating the changing of Qi, natural humanity theory considering the blood and mind as the humanity, ethics attaching importance to satisfaction of emotion and desire, epistemology thingking high of study and rationality. Although Dai-zhen' criticism of Neo-Confucianism never gained widespread understanding and praise, his recovery and developmentt of tuo fine traditions of three great thoughters in early Qing Dynasty, which had great importance in conforming to historical trend of the times. Besides, Dai-zhen' criticism aiso broke the quietness of Qian-Jia thought cicle, inherit and advocated trend of the ideological thought of "Qi"theory and "Realistics" in Ming-Qing Dynasty replacing the Neo-Confucianism in song-ming Dynasty, and created new thought of Qian-Jia period. Moreover, the two .models of "perceptual enlightmen" and intellectual enlightment" had great influence on later generations and modern times. However, Dai-zhen' critical means of making use of explanation of Mencius to express his own idea , aiso led itself to be flat to a certain extent. 

【关键词】 戴震; 理学; 批判; 自然; 必然
【Key words】 Dai-zhen; Neo-Confucianism ; Criticism; Nature; Certainty
  戴震对宋明理学的批判

摘要 3-4
Abstract 4
引言 6-12
第一章 戴震理学批判思想产生的原因探析 12-22
    1.1 政治与社会的外缘 12-16
    1.2 人生际遇、学术、性格的内因 16-22
第二章 戴震批判理学的手段与理论基石 22-28
    2.1 戴震批判理学的手段 22-24
    2.2 戴震批判理学的理论基石 24-28
第三章 戴震理学批判思想的四个理论环节 28-55
    3.1 反理本论主气实体论 28-33
    3.2 反人性二元 立自然人性论 33-39
    3.3 反遏情灭欲 倡遂欲达情 39-47
    3.4 反“复初”内求主重学尚智 47-55
第四章 戴震理学批判思想的反响与评价 55-64
    4.1 戴震理学批判思想的反响 55-58
    4.2 戴震理学批判思想的评价 58-64
结论 64-65
参考文献 65-69
致谢 69

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