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论谢林的同一哲学

更新时间 2009-12-7 18:00:13 点击数:

论谢林的同一哲学
On the Theory of Schelling's Identical Philosophy
【摘要】 谢林哲学是在由康德建立的德国先验哲学的基础上发展出来的,因此,它吸收了先验哲学的一个最重要的理论成果。这个理论成果就是:知识的客观性必须建立在由自我意识所构建的主体与客体,或者说自我与对象的先验一致性之上。在谢林系统表述他的同一哲学的《先验唯心论体系》中,谢林认为知识的基础在于主观与客观的无差别的绝对同一,这个绝对同一可以通过对自我意识的原始建构机制的推演呈现给我们。自我意识之所以有这种作用,谢林认为自我意识是一种不断对象化自身的创造活动,同时又能直观这种活动。因此,自我意识在显现这个绝对同一体的时候,它与绝对同一的关系是内在的。就是说,自我意识的建构过程,就是绝对同一的显现过程,因此,知识的关键就是直观这种过程。谢林通过理论哲学、实践哲学和艺术哲学中的分析,具体推演了直观级次的提高过程。谢林认为直到艺术直观这个层次,那个绝对同一体作为主观与客观的原始和谐的根据,才最终显示给我们。

【Abstract】 Schelling's philosophy is based on Germany transcendental philosophy which was constructed by Kant ,so his philosophy absorbed a most important theoretical results from this philosophy. The result of this theory is: the objectivity of knowledge must be based on the construction of self-consciousness by the subject and object, or a priori self-consistency between subject and object. Schelling expressed his philosophy by his "transcendental idealism system" .In this book Schelling view that knowledge is not based on the non-subjective or objective things, but the identity in these two things which can be absolutely presented to us by the original construction of the inference mechanism of the self-consciousness. The reason why self-consciousness of this role, Schelling view that the self- consciousness is this object which can only be defined by it’s own creative activities, such activities can be intuited at the same time . Therefore, the relationship between the self-consciousness and absolute identity is inherent when the identity is built in our self-consciousness. In other words, the construction of the process of self-consciousness, that is, the process which the absolute–identity was showed in its own situation, therefore, intuition is the key to this process. Schelling show this specific deduction of the intuitive from the analysis of theoretical philosophy, ethical philosophy and artistic philosophy. Schelling believes that this level until the visual arts, one that is absolutely identity as the subjective and objective in accordance with the original harmony before the final can be show to us.However, this completely identity which can be found in subjective and objective is bound to appear in the separately situation in terms of self-consciousness, so the whole system of Schelling's philosophy is to show the process of which the separate thing through self-consciousness how to achieve identity by the same self-consciousness, but Since it is achieved by self-consciousness ,so how to beyond self-consciousness in our awareness is a problem which must be solved in Schelling's philosophy . Schelling believes that if we can deduct the process of the intuitive level we should solve this problem.Schelling show that the process of original self-consciousness construction to prove this point. Schelling believes that the construction of self-consciousness as the original must be limit the activities of self-awareness through the establishment of their own .The possibility of this limit is the original self-duality: an activity is an objective, realistic activities which can be limited the ; Another activity is subjective, the concept of activity, it showed reversion to the tendency of unlimited self-intuitive, our self-consciousness is built from these two activities with which against to each other and balance to each other. These two activities are unlimited activities from the activities of these two activities constitute the self-consciousness is an unlimited two opposing activities of a comprehensive, knowledge arises from the activities of such an integrated intuition. Schelling's philosophy is divided into theoretical philosophy, practical philosophy and artistic philosophy based on the different stages of intuition. In theoretical philosophy the creative intuitive is discussed mainly, the organic intuition is the peak intuition. Practice focuses on the philosophy of freedom, marked by a visual level. The same absolute-identity in the theoretical philosophy as unconsciousness, in ethical philosophy as consciousness, communication between the two has become the main task of Schelling’s philosophy. Schelling believes that the organic intuition through nature, we can realize that the identity of the two. However, this is not the objective of self-identity in itself. we can consciously aware of the harmony of the unconscious activities and conscious activities, but this sense of self is not objective, because in this case intuition is not separate from it’s object and this intuition visual are not themselves self-intuition .Therefore, in relation to this intuition another intuition must be a necessary requirements and this is article intuitive. Schelling don’t deduct the mechanism of this intuition and only give a simple note from the product that was product through this intuition .Schelling believes that article intuition appear through self-consciousness while this show is completely unconscious, so it will be able to go beyond the awareness of consciousness. Schelling believes that the absolute–identity can be re-constructed their own identity on the platform from theoretical philosophy, practical philosophy and article philosophy. And the objectivity of knowledge is based on this platform. However, the artistic intuition is on the other side of things, since the awareness of the other side of things only through the artistic intuitive sense to show, it can never be give our something from this process in Schelling’s philosophy. Through the visual Schelling come to a conclusion that the absolute-identity can not be in our grasp, it can only show their own. Schelling himself believes that art don’t give our something about identity, art is only the road leading to the identity, but it does not provide knowledge about the identity. The rational intuition is external, the artistic intuition is external too, so the same thing which is separated through awareness must go beyond awareness to return to itself, and this is the ultimate achievement of Schelling’s philosophy. In fact, knowledge about the absolute–identity can only come from itself . Schelling believes that their lives are limited by the absolute identity, there are differences in the transition state can only be expressed in this situation: "poured out of the eternal. 

【关键词】 绝对同一; 直观; 先验
【Key words】 Absolute identity; intuition ; transcendental
  论谢林的同一哲学

内容提要 4-6
前言 6-7
第1章 先验哲学的视野及其理论形态 7-11
    1.1 康德的先验哲学 7-9
    1.2 费希特的知识学 9-11
第2章 谢林同一哲学的基本内容 11-19
    2.1 绝对同一与自我 11-13
    2.2 自我与直观 13-16
    2.3 理智直观与艺术直观 16-19
第3章 谢林哲学主要问题及其趋向 19-22
    3.1 谢林哲学存在的问题 19-20
    3.2 谢林后期哲学的趋向 20-22
结论 22-23
注释 23-25
参考文献 25-26
后记 26-27
中文摘要 27-29
Abstract 29-31

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