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马克思的交往思想探究

更新时间 2009-11-29 20:30:16 点击数:

马克思的交往思想探究
Research of Marx's Interaction Theory
【摘要】 社会交往理论在马克思主义哲学体系中,尤其在历史唯物主义理论创建过程中,具有十分重要的地位。同时,社会交往理论也是20世纪世界上最具前沿性和交叉性的课题之一,也是目前国内理论界日益关注的“理论热点”之一。国外哲学意义上的交往理论,更强调交往与人类社会生活的内在统一性,认为交往本身即人的生存方式,它涵盖了人类生活的全部领域,它的范围和界限亦即人类实践生活的范围和界限。马克思并没有关于交往的专门的论著,只是在其早期著作《德意志意识形态》中高度关注了生产和交往的相互关系及其人的发展的作用问题,动态地考察了在劳动生产中产生的交往关系的运动过程。故学术界长期把交往关系、交往形式等看作是生产关系的不成熟的早期用语。在后来的《1857—1858年经济学手稿》中,马克思从劳动的二重性这一人们交往关系发展到一定阶段产生的社会现象入手,考察了劳动二重性的生成过程。在资本和劳动的关系中,劳动和资本的联系必须以交换价值为中介,通过交换并且只有在交换中才会发生。并且通过对以生产关系为核心的交往体系的分析,论述了相互联系着的三种交往形式,即人的依赖关系的交往形式、物的依赖关系的交往形式、全面发展的交往形式。通过对人类交往的历史演进形态的论述,深刻揭示了人在历史形成中的社会性,人们之间社会结合的性质和水平,为我们全面把握人的本质提供了丰富的理论资源。马克思所设想的理想的交往形式——真正联合的自由交往,是以生产力和交往的普遍发展为前提的,而这种前提正是资本的矛盾运动所提供的。资本主义就是以物的依赖关系取代了人的依赖关系,物与物的关系构成了一切交往关系的中心内容并辐射到一切交往领域,形成了资本主义交往关系中单维度的价值取向。但资本主义社会创造的丰富的社会关系和人类整体能力体系,为人类最终摆脱分工的束缚、狭隘地域的限制、实现个人的全面发展提供了现实条件。在《资本论》中,马克思考察了商品——货币——资本的运转和过程,凸现交往在资本主义社会中的作用。横向上,交往理论被放置到人类的物质生产、精神生产以及社会历史演进等领域,从而明确马克思赋予交往和生产实践两个概念的特有内涵,并从物质生产与物质交往活动中牵引出生产力和生产关系范畴及其相互关系的辨证原理;又从精神生产活动与精神交往关系中牵引出政治上层建筑与思想上层建筑范畴。因此,研究马克思交往理论对科学理解唯物史观具有重大的现实意义,能够具体而真实地揭示生产与社会经济结构和政治结构以及社会意识形式的联系。马克思从唯物史观的角度来理解人是在物质生产实践中不断生成和发展的。交往是人的本质的存在方式,它既是一种关系性范畴,又是一种活动性范畴。 

【Abstract】 Marx did not specifically dwell on the interaction of theory,only in his early book "Th e German Ideology" highly concerned about the mutual relation between production and int eraction and their hole in human development issues,dynamically inspected the movemen t process of interaction generated in the labor production.Therefore,long-term academic e xchanges interaction form,interaction relation as early immature language of production rel ation.In the later "1857-1858 manuscript of economics",from the duality of labor that peop le's developing to a certain stage of interaction relations Marx inspect the generation pro cess of labor's duality.In the capital and labor relations,labor and capital must be linked t o exchange value as media,through the exchange and only in the exchange happened.A nd through the interaction analysis which looked production relations as the core,Marx d wells on the three inter-linkage interaction forms,namely,people's dependence on relations hips form,substance's dependence on relationship form,the form of all-round development of people's contacts.Through the historical evolution of human interaction patterns,man' s social character is profoundly revealed in the historical formation,and social intergratio n's nature and level between people,for ours' fully grasping the essence of man provid ing a rich resource.Marx envisioned the ideal form of interaction - the true freedom of joi nt exchanges,based on productivity and the general development of exchanges as the premi se and this premise is provided by the movement of capital's contradictions.Capitalism is to replace the complex dependence of man's dependence by substance's dependence,th e relationship between objects and objects constitutes the center of all relationships and radi ates to the fields of all the contacts formed of a single dimension of value orientation betw een the capitalist relations.However,the wealth of capitalist society and social relationship s and the overall capacity of the human system,they provided the actual conditions for t he end of mankind from the shackles of the division of labor,the narrow geographical bou ndaries,to achieve the comprehensive development of individuals providing the actual conditions.In "Das Kapital",Marx had studied of operations and processses of commodity - money - capital,highlighted exchanges'role in a capitalist society.Horizontally,the int eractiontheory is placed into the fields of the material,spiritual production of human,and social history of the evolution.Thereby explicitly Marx had given the unique connotati on of the two concepts,production practice and interaction.And from the material product ion and material exchanges between the activities of traction out of the productivity and rel ations of production areas and their mutual relations,and their dialectical principles.From the spiritual productive activities and spiritual relationships of traction out of the political superstructure and ideological superstructure areas,Therefore,it is of great practical significance of studying Marxist theory of interaction to understand the materialist conception of history,to reveal the concrete and real link of production and socio-economic structure and political structure and social consciousness for ms.From the perspective of historical materialism Marx had understanded people are in th e material production practice of generation and development.Exchanges are the essence o f human existence,it is a relationship between these areas also an activity of the scope. 

【关键词】 马克思; 生产; 交往; 人的发展
【Key words】 Marx; Production; Interaction; Man’s development
  马克思的交往思想探究

摘要 4-6
ABSTRACT 6-7
序言 9-11
    1、国外学者研究状况 9
    2、国内学者研究状况 9-11
一、马克思交往理论的形成和发展 11-19
    1、1 交往理论的创立 11-13
    1、2 交往理论的发展 13-17
    1、3 交往理论的验证 17-19
二、交往与生产 19-26
    2、1 交往与物质生产 19-22
    2、2 交往与精神生产 22-23
    2、3 人类社会的历史演进 23-26
三、交往与人的全面发展 26-32
    3、1 人的本质和人的发展 26-27
    3、2 人的实践活动和交往形式 27-28
    3、3 人的全面发展的历程 28-32
结语 32-34
注释 34-35
主要参考文献 35-37
致谢 37

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