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晚明及清“生”美学思想研究

更新时间 2009-9-3 7:31:42 点击数:

论文标题】晚明及清“生”美学思想研究
【英文标题】
【中文摘要】 美学范畴作为美学网络上的纽结,在建构美学思想体系中有着重要的意义。各个历史时期都有其独特的美学范畴。“生”范畴的出现和演变经历了较为复杂的过程,它萌芽于唐,发展于宋,深化和成熟于明清。本文对“生”范畴的演变过程、美学内涵、形成原因作了较为全面的梳理。本文共分为四部分。第一部分对“生”的美学观念的发展历程作了简要的说明,主要从哲学和美学两个方面来分析,阐述了“生”最初由《周易》认为的“生”主要是指宇宙的生生不息,到如何演变到具有美学意味的文学创作和文学风格上的“生”。“生”作为一个独立的哲学范畴出现在《周易》中,“生生之为易”、“天地之大德曰生”,《周易》认为宇宙最崇高、最可贵的品德是“生”。春秋时期诸子百家也提倡重“生”思想,从重视人的生命发展到认识宇宙万物的生命可贵。哲学的重“生”反映到审美思想上是对“生”的追求,这种追求开始于唐代的审美趣味的转变,到了明清时期达到顶峰。第二部分重点阐述了“生”的审美内涵。从文学风格上来说,表现为形式上推陈出新,内容上不落窠臼、别具一格。而创新就意味着变化,正所谓“变则新,不变则腐。变则活,不变则板”。其次从文学创作上看,是经过生硬——雕琢——自然这三个阶段,达到自然而然、不雕不饰的创作境界。艺术作品是经过长期艰苦的艺术技法和语言媒介的修炼,才能达到炉火纯青的高度自由境界。任何成功的文艺创作,技巧的锤炼是一个必经的过程,艺术品的创作过程大多是经历了从生到熟,再由熟到生这三个阶段。从境界上说,“生”追求的就是返朴归真、不工而工的人生境界。“熟”后之“生”就是这种最高境界,是绚烂之极的平淡自然,它没有任何雕琢的痕迹,纯粹是老子所言的“大巧若拙”的境界。第三部分主要分析“生”成为晚明及清的独特审美范畴的原因。首先是明代中叶的浪漫主义文艺思潮的诞生起到了一种催化剂的作用,导致人们的审美心理发生了变化。明代中叶资本主义生产关系的萌芽和市民阶层的崛起,以及与之相对应的主体的自我观念、个性自觉和情欲迸发等文化意识的上升,再加上宋明理学对人们思想的禁锢、对情感欲求的束缚等因素酿成了一场浪漫主义思潮。这场思潮最突出的表现就是文人对自我价值的确认和追求。其次是文学创作规律的影响以及创作主体自身的原因。在一种文学风格创始的时候,它必须有一种革新的精神,而且常常是在另一种风格成熟、众人模仿成风的时候针对旧风格的流弊而加以革新。再次是哲学禅学的渗透,使求“生”思想的发展有了指引。哲学是时代的灵魂,反映着一个时代思想动态的内在脉搏,每一个时代所发生的各种重大历史变化最终必然会在哲学思想上表现出来。最后是商品经济的冲击,晚明时期出现这种审美意识,其社会根源主要是资本主义商品经济的萌芽,推动了这股思潮的蓬勃发展。第四部分说明“生”作为晚明及清的一个独特的美学范畴,并不是孤零零地存在着,它和其他的美学范畴有着千丝万缕的联系,但又有本质的不同。这部分主要对“生”和它相近意义上的“拙”、“朴”,以及它的对立面“熟”等作比较,来更加清晰的把握它的审美内涵。“生”与“熟”,是文学艺术创作的两大基本要求,“熟”是“生”的基础,“生”是“熟”的升华。只求“生”,作品艰涩难懂,不知所云。只求“熟”,作品落入窠臼,不免流俗。“拙”、“朴”与“生”一样,也被看作是一种艺术高度成熟的标志。不同主要在于“拙”、“朴”反对形式上的雕琢,以最朴实、最原初的创作来彰显作品的内涵。结语说明了“生”不仅是晚明及清代的一个重要的审美范畴,而且还说明它的审美特征对今天的文学创作和发展都有很大的借鉴意义。首先从文学艺术创作上来看,要想达到“生”境,第一要素是苦练基本功,这是艺术成就的根基和源泉。正如郑板桥所说:“四十年来画竹枝,日间挥写夜间思,冗繁削尽留清瘦,画到生时是熟时”。其次求“生”要掌握适度的原则。过分追求“生”,过分张扬主体的个性特征创作,不分良莠生吞活剥,以“生”、“怪”为取向,声称要引领时代新潮,忽略从精神意趣上去领会把握,忽视从学养上充实其内涵,那么最终的结果只能是因缺乏真功夫、真性情而成为过往云烟。

【英文摘要】 Aesthetic categories as a knot on the network have a great significance in the construction of aesthetic ideology . Various historical periods have a period to reflect the unique aesthetics idea of aesthetic categories.“Sheng(生)”category has experienced the emergence and evolution of more complex process, which sprout in the Tang Dynasty, developed in the Song, to deepen and mature in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. In this paper, substantial research literature on the basis of the“Sheng(生)”area of origin, evolution, aesthetic connotations of the reasons for the formation of the comb made more comprehensive, this article is divided into four parts.The first part of“Sheng(生)”of the aesthetic concept is the development process of a brief description, mainly from two aspects of philosophical and aesthetic analysis .“Sheng(生)”was first introduced by the“Zhou Yi(周易)”,It was thought that“Sheng(生)”mainly refers to the universe of life and life is not interest in how the evolution to a mean of aesthetics and style of literature on the“Sheng(生)”.“Sheng(生)”as an independent in the areas of philosophy,“Zhou Yi(周易)”,“life is vulnerable”, and“Heaven and Earth of health is“Sheng(生)”,“Zhou Yi(周易)”that the universe, the most noble, the most valuable qualities is“Sheng(生)”.In Spring and Autumn Period some thinkers promote“Sheng(生)”of thought, from the emphasis on the development of human life to understand the value of the life of everything in the universe. Emphasis on the philosophy of“Sheng(生)”reflect the aesthetic ideology of“Sheng(生)”to pursue the pursuit that began in the Tang Dynasty aesthetic changes to the peak in Ming and Qing Dynasties.The second part focuses on“Sheng(生)”is a aesthetic connotation. This part is divided into three parts, first of all think of“Sheng(生)”is beyond the original innovation. From a literary style, the form does not rigidly adhere to their predecessors creative ways, and dare to create their own unique style. Not follow the beaten track on the content, unique and can be made by our predecessors should not matter. Secondly, from the literary point of view, is a blunt cut and polish—naturally these three stages to achieve a natural, non-carved ornaments not creative realm. From the realm that is not work-related workers, getting back to basics. Art is long and arduous and language arts skills of practicing media in order to achieve the high degree of technical proficiency level of the high degree of freedom. The success of any literary and artistic creation, skills of the temper is a necessary process of the creative process of art are experienced from birth to mature and then cooked to the three stages of Health. From the state, said,“Sheng(生)”is the pursuit of getting back to basics, do not work while the realm of life.“Shu(熟)”after“Sheng(生)”is the highest level this is the extreme of the plain gorgeous natural, it does not have any signs of cut and polish, Lao Zi simply said“wisdom disguised as slow-wittedness”realm.The third part of the main analysis is that“Sheng(生)”has become the late Ming to the Qing's unique aesthetic aspects of the causes. Focus is from the laws of artistic creation, cultural time refraction merchandise causes of economic and political influence. The first is the mid-Ming Dynasty thought the birth of Romantic literature and art played a role of a catalyst, leading to people's aesthetic psychology has changed.Ming the middle of capitalist production relations and the rise of the public sectors, as well as the main body of the corresponding self-concept, personality and passion burst forth consciously cultural awareness increased, together with the Neo-Confucianism of imprisonment on people's thinking, desires and aspirations of the shackles of emotional and other factors lead to a romantic thought. This trend is the performance of the most prominent writers of self-worth and the pursuit of confirmation. Second, the impact of the law of literary creation, was their main reason for creation. Founding in a literary style, it must have a spirit of innovation, often in another style of mature, become a common practice when people imitate the old style for the abuse and be innovative. Finally, the impact of commodity economy, the late Ming period of the aesthetic sense, the social roots of the capitalist commodity economy is mainly the seeds of ideas to promote the vigorous development of stocks.Once again, the infiltration of philosophy to achieve“Sheng(生)”has been the development of guidelines for thinking. Philosophy is the soul of the times, reflecting the thinking of an era of dynamic intrinsic pulse, each occurred in an era of great historical changes in a variety of ultimately manifested in the philosophical thinking.Part IV describes the“Sheng(生)”as the late Ming to the Qing's a unique aesthetic category is not a solitary existence, it and other areas of the aesthetic is inextricably linked to, but also essentially different. Main put“Sheng(生)”and its meaning is similar to the“Pu(朴)”and its antithesis“Shu(熟)”and so on in comparison to more clearly grasp the meaning of its aesthetic. The main difference is that "humble", "Park" No form of cut and polish, the most simple, the most original creative works to demonstrate content.“Sheng(生)”and“Shu(熟)”is a literary and artistic creation, the two basic requirements,“Shu(熟)”is“Sheng(生)”basis,“Sheng(生)”is a“Shu(熟)”sublimation. Only“Sheng(生)”, works hard to understand abstruse, and not knowing what. Only“Shu(熟)”, the work falling into the patterns, can not help.“Pu(朴)”“Zhou(拙)”and“Sheng(生)”, as was also seen as a sign of highly sophisticated art.Conclusion that the“Sheng(生)”not only in the late Ming and Qing Dynasty are an important aesthetic areas, and its aesthetic characteristics of today's literary creation and development of great reference significance. First of all literary and artistic creation from the point of view, in order to achieve“Sheng(生)”, the first element is the basic training, which is the foundation of artistic achievement and a source. Second, to achieve“Sheng(生)”is to grasp the principle of proportionality.Excessive pursuit of“Sheng(生)”, excessive publicity of the main characteristics of creative personality, regardles
【中文关键词】 “生”; 晚明及清; 审美阐释
【英文关键词】 “Sheng(生)”; The late Ming and Qing; Aesthetic interpretation
【论文目录】
中文摘要 5-7
ABSTRACT 7-10
引言 11-13
一“生”的审美观念的发展历程 13-16
二 晚明及清对“生”的审美内涵的阐释 16-25
    (一) 不工而工 17-21
    (二) 自然而然,不着斧痕 21-24
    (三) 返朴归真 24-25
三 晚明及清重视“生”审美范畴的原因 25-29
    (一) 浪漫主义思潮的推动 26
    (二) 艺术创作规律使然 26-27
    (三) 哲学的渗透 27-28
    (四) 商品经济的冲击 28-29
四 “生”与“熟”、“朴”、“拙”审美范畴的辨析 29-35
结语 35-36
注释 36-40
参考文献 40-42
攻读学位期间发表学术论文 42-43
致谢 43

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