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亚里士多德的逻辑学说与语言的渊源关系研究

更新时间 2009-12-3 18:31:13 点击数:

亚里士多德的逻辑学说与语言的渊源关系研究
Aristotelian Logical Theory Has a Certain Origin Relation with His Language Study
【摘要】 亚里士多德的逻辑研究对后世的影响是深远而长久的。一直以来,人们认为亚里士多德的逻辑学说是起源于数学的。本人通过研究发现,语言因素在亚里士多德逻辑学说的形成和发展中起到了非常重要的作用,他的逻辑学说与他的语言研究有一定的渊源关系。围绕这一论点,本文从语言逻辑的角度分析了亚里士多德逻辑著作中的语言思想,并找出它们之于逻辑的渊源关系:修辞学方面,《修辞学》是亚里士多德早期的逻辑著作,这一著作的产生离不开智者们对语言的实际应用。亚里士多德从智者的修辞术中总结出比喻理论,并将其应用于后期的类比推理理论。语法学方面,亚里士多德逻辑学说中的概念、命题和推理都反映了语法与逻辑之间的承递关系,三段论中的逻辑联接词“如果…那么…”的使用则更为直接地反映了这一点。本文重点讨论了“如果…那么…”在语法中的类属问题,并由此引伸出亚里士多德三段论前提与结论之间的关系,最后得出结论:他的逻辑学说是立足于语法又高于语法的。语义学方面,本文着眼于逻辑学家分析语义问题时普遍涉及的四个问题:词项的内涵与外延、词项的系统性问题、真实句与谬误句以及词项间的可递关系和互易关系,从概念、判断到推理,逐步分析亚里士多德对这几个问题的语义解释,最后得出结论:他的逻辑学说得益于他对语义的研究。最后,针对现在流行的“逻辑起源于数学”这一观点得出全文的结论:亚里士多德的逻辑学说与语言有一定的渊源关系,并简要论述了这一结论的意义。 

【Abstract】 Aristotelian logical theory is not only profound and far-reaching but also permanent to the influence of the later generations. Continuously, people think that Aristotelian logical theory derives from mathematics. After considering, we find that language factors have an especial importance during the formation and the development of Aristotelian logical theory, his logical theory and his language study have a certain origin relation. From the logical angle in language, we analyze the language thoughts in his logical works, finding out the origin relation between them.On rhetoric, the《Rhetoric》is Aristotelian logical work of the earlier stage. The creation of this work relied on the wise’ practice on language. Through their rhetoric, Aristotle summed up his metaphor theory and applied it to the analogous reasoning theory in the late.On grammar, the concept、the proposition and the syllogism can help us find the relation between his logical theory and his grammar study, especially the use of the logical conjunction “if …so…”. This article emphasizes that this logical conjunction belongs to the cause and effect sentence pattern on grammar, and so finds out the relation between the premiss and the conclusion in Aristotle’s syllogism. Finally, we get a conclusion: Aristotelian logical theory not only origins from but also surpasses his grammar study.On semantic, when the logicians analyze semantic, they always talk about four questions: the lexical item’s intention and extension; the sentence’s right and wrong; the item’s systematic question; the transmit relation and the exchange relation with each other of the item. From the concept to the proposition, from the proposition to the syllogism, Aristotle analyzed them on semantic. In the end, we get a conclusion: Aristotelian logical theory is unable to separate from his semantic study.Finally, aiming at the standpoint “logic origins from mathematics”, we have the conclusion of the full text: Aristotelian logical theory has a certain origin relation with his language study. 

【关键词】 逻辑 ; 语言因素 ; 语法 ; 语义; 修辞
【Key words】 logic ; language factor ; rhetoric ; grammar ; semantic
  亚里士多德的逻辑学说与语言的渊源关系研究

中文摘要 3-4
Abstract 4
引 言 5-7
第一章 亚里士多德逻辑学说与语言研究的历史渊源 7-11
    一、 亚里士多德在逻辑史上的地位 7
    二、 亚里士多德逻辑学说的主要内容 7-9
    三、 亚里士多德逻辑学说与语言研究的历史渊源 9-11
第二章 亚里士多德的修辞学思想研究 11-17
    一、 修辞学与逻辑学的渊源关系 11
    二、 论辩术?修辞术?修辞学 11-12
    三、 智者对逻辑产生所起的作用 12-13
    四、 亚里士多德的修辞学思想与逻辑学的渊源关系 13-17
第三章 亚里士多德的语法学思想研究 17-23
    一、 语法学与逻辑学的渊源关系 17
    二、 亚里士多德的逻辑学说是立足于语法又高于语法的一门科学 17-23
第四章 亚里士多德的语义学思想研究 23-30
    一、 逻辑学与语义学的渊源关系 23-24
    二、 亚里士多德的逻辑学说得益于他的语义研究 24-30
第五章 关于亚里士多德逻辑学说起源问题的讨论 30-32
    一、 关于逻辑起源问题的讨论 30-31
    二、 亚里士多德的语言研究对后人的影响 31-32
结语 32-33
注释 33-35
参考文献 35-36
后记 36

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