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哲人与城邦的冲突及出路:柏拉图政治哲学新探

更新时间 2009-9-5 12:15:32 点击数:

毕业论文标题】 哲人与城邦的冲突及出路:柏拉图政治哲学新探
【英文标题】
【中文摘要】 柏拉图政治哲学的起点是面对苏格拉底之死所引出的哲人与城邦的冲突关系问题。可以说柏拉图的所有著作都是对哲人与城邦关系的这一问题的回应,以自己的方式努力做出解答。本文主要分五个方面,首先是阐释柏拉图政治哲学的提出,解释其特别的写作手法及哲人与城邦问题的浮现,第二是分析哲人与城邦冲突的原因,第三部分是写化解这种冲突的首次尝试即言辞中的正义城邦实现的不可行性,及对政治事物本质的阐明,而这种阐明为最终化解冲突奠定了基础,第四部分是陈述化解冲突的最终出路,最后一部分是柏拉图政治哲学对后世的影响。柏拉图所有的著作都是对话戏剧体,我们要明白的是柏拉图的所有写作都是一种技艺,而不仅是报道,或者说根本就不是报道,是主动的写作而不是被动的记录,柏拉图的所有作品表现的是其伟大的修辞术,是通过这样的修辞术对世界的一种表现。这意味着其作品是一个整体,每个部分都有其存在的意义和必要性,这点必须引起我们的重视,这是柏拉图对哲人与城邦冲突问题的回应。哲人与城邦的冲突,大致有以下几个方面的原因:第一是哲人与民众的对立。哲人拥有独特的天资,他们热爱并追求超越于意见之上的真理,而民众信赖意见,他们的生活由对生活的各种各样的意见组成,这些意见大多是些想像,至多不过是些信念。这意味着哲人与民众本性的不同。另外,哲人与民众比起来总是处于少数人的位置。第二个原因是哲人与智者、假哲人的对立。智者和假哲人们所谓的智慧不过是众人的意见,他们误导民众,他们之所以会作恶是因为他们并不知在做恶,因其不知何为善、恶的真正知识。他们拥有的只是关于善恶的意见,在流俗意见中,他们把自己无法理解的哲人视为无用的废物,他们服务于身体而非灵魂,从而导致哲人处境的危险。第三是哲人追求自然正当秩序威胁并挑战城邦权威代表的城邦传统秩序。哲人区分了习俗和自然,并努力探寻何为真正的自然正当生活,质疑权威所代表的传统律法,将权威存在的依据连根拔起,认为只有自己研究的自然才是真正的权威,这是任何城邦权威所不能容忍的。第四个原因是哲人本身缺乏自知之明。通过《申辩》柏拉图让我们注意到阿里斯托芬对苏格拉底的描绘,即苏格拉底是个对自己的处境毫无自知之明的人,并在《斐多》中给予了相应的默认,即苏格拉底不懂得去辨识人性,也因此而缺乏自知之明。第五个原因是哲人本身的判断也需要受到检审。哲人一向以追求超越于意见之上的知识为己任。但这种追求本身是否正当还有待证明,同时哲人所谓的知识也有待证明。在城邦面前,哲人需要辩明自己生活的正当性。在《理想国》中柏拉图通过构建言辞中的绝对正义城邦来解决哲人与城邦的冲突,这次尝试以失败告终,这种言辞中的绝对正义城邦在地上不会实现,主要是因为这个言辞中的绝对正义城邦本身违反自然,是一个乌托邦。由此,这次进行的首次尝试虽然失败了,没有告诉我们现实中可以实现的最可能好的政治制度,却告诉我们了政治事务的本性和局限:城邦或者政治事务的本质就是它们低于个体所能达到的完美。通过阐释政治事务的本质,就为化解哲人与城邦的冲突提供了坚实的基础。哲人与城邦冲突的最终解决主要通过以下几个途径,第一是哲人改变生存方式,成为政治哲人。这并不意味着哲人不再研究自然,哲人仍然无畏地研究自然,但同时也开始学习人事,去理解政治事务。哲学成为政治哲学只是意味着生存方式的改变。也就是说,政治哲人在城邦中的言行发生了改变。政治哲人们由此在城邦改变以往对哲人的无用有害的印象,给城邦留下好的印象,并潜移默化地影响着城邦。第二是影响立法者,努力实现法治国家。法治虽然不是最好的政治制度,却是现实中最可行最稳靠的政治形式,在哲人影响立法者而成的法治城邦中哲人必会与城邦相安无事,且相得益彰。第三是诗教及柏拉图的写作。柏拉图认为法律的写作必须结合诗,并认为诗可以很好的感化民众,但这种诗必须超越流俗意义上的诗,这是种全新的从属于哲学的诗,这也便是柏拉图的写作。

【英文摘要】 Plato's political philosophy is the starting point of the face leads to the death of Socrates the philosopher and the city-state conflict in the relationship.It can be said that all the works of Plato are the relationship of the philosopher and the city's response to this question, efforts in their own ways to answer. This article is divided into five main areas, first, Plato's political philosophy to explain the proposal, explain the philosopher's writing practices and emerging issues with the city, and the second is the philosopher and the city-state analysis of the causes of conflict, the third part is written to resolve this conflict in the first attempt that the words just do not realize the feasibility of city-states, and to clarify the nature of political things, which set out for the ultimate laid the foundation for conflict resolution, the fourth part is the ultimate statement of conflict resolution way out, the last part of Plato's political philosophy is the impact on future generations. Plato's dialogue is all the drama of the book body, we want to understand Plato's are all writing is a skill, not just reports, or simply not reported, are active rather than passive Writing Record , Plato the performance of all the works are the great rhetorical tricks of rhetoric through the operation of such a manifestation of the world. This means that his work as a whole, each part has its significance and necessity of existence, it must draw our attention.Philosopher of extreme conflict with the city-state relations, there is more or less the following reasons: The first is the distinction between philosophers and the public. Philosopher has a unique talent, they go beyond the love and the pursuit of truth in the views above, and the views of the public trust, their life and livelihood from the views of various components, most of these views are more imagination is up to more believes. This means that the philosophers and the public nature of the different. In addition, the philosopher and the public than a small number of people are always in position. A second reason is that philosophers and wise men, philosophers leave the other. Wise and leave the so-called intelligence-chol But people are people and they misled the public the reason why they would do evil because they are evil I do not know, because I do not know what is good and evil really knowledge. They have just about the views of good and evil, in the ordinary opinion, they can not put their own understanding of the philosopher as a useless waste, they serve rather than the soul of the body, leading philosophers of the dangerous situation. The third is the authority of philosophers and the city-state confrontation. Philosophers distinguish between the customs and nature, and strive to explore what is really the proper natural life, represented by questioning the authority of traditional law will be based on the authority of the existence uprooted, their study only consider the real nature of the authority, which is any the authority of the city can not be tolerated. The fourth reason is the lack of self-knowledge philosopher. Through the "defense" so that we took note of Plato's Aristophanes to descriptions of Socrates that Socrates is a situation on their own without any self-knowledge and where the "feiduo" to give the corresponding default, Socrates did not know how that is human nature to identify and therefore a lack of self-knowledge. The fifth reason is the philosopher's own judge is also required by the vet. Philosopher has always been to go beyond the pursuit of knowledge in the views on responsibility. However, this is a legitimate pursuit of their own remains to be proved that the so-called knowledge of philosophers at the same time has yet to be proved. In the city before the philosopher necessary to clarify the legitimacy of their own lives. Unless the relationship between such conflict in a "Utopia" in order to disarm, but told us that Plato's ideal state is stored in the sky, will not achieve on the ground, mainly because of the "Utopia" itself is not very just, Level of it such as violation of natural and so on, and it will inevitably fall. Portrayed through the "Utopia", Plato does not tell us the best possible political system, it told us of a political nature and limits of services. City or the nature of political affairs that they can achieve less than perfect individuals.Philosophers to resolve the conflict with the city mainly in the following way, the first philosopher to change are a means to survival, a political philosopher. This does not mean that research is no longer a natural philosopher, philosophers are still studying fearless nature, but at the same time begin study personnel, to understand political affairs. Philosophy and political philosophy as a means only a change in the way of survival. In other words, the political philosopher in the city changed the words and deeds. Chol people political change resulting in the city of philosophers impression unwanted harmful to the city left a good impression, and the city exerts a subtle influence. The second is the impact of the legislators, and strive to achieve the rule of law. The rule of law is not the best political system, but in reality are the most stable on the most viable form of political, philosopher at the impact of the rule of law by legislators in the city-state must be philosophers along with the city and each other. Third, teaching poetry and Plato's writing. Plato maintained that the law must be read in conjunction writing poetry, and that poetry can be very good people on probation, but must go beyond the ordinary meaning of poems on the poetry, which is subordinate to the new philosophy of the poem, which is hodginsii Writing Latour.

【中文关键词】 柏拉图; 苏格拉底; 哲人; 政治哲学
【英文关键词】 Plato; Socrates; Philosopher; Political Philosophy
【论文目录】
中文摘要 5-7
Abstract 7-8
引言 9-10
一、柏拉图政治哲学的提出和写作手法 10-13
    1. 柏拉图政治哲学的起点 10-11
    2. 对话式的写作手法及哲人与城邦冲突问题的浮现 11-13
二、哲人与城邦冲突的原因 13-26
    1. 民众信赖意见,哲人追求超越意见之上的真理 14-16
    2. 哲人与智者和假哲人的冲突 16-18
    3. 哲人追求自然正当秩序威胁城邦权威代表的传统习俗秩序 18-21
    4. 哲人本身缺乏自知之明 21-24
    5. 哲人本身的判断也需要受到检审 24-26
三、绝对正义城邦的不可行性:化解冲突的失败与政治事务本质的阐明 26-35
    1. 言辞中绝对正义城邦的乌托邦性之一:等级性 27-29
    2. 言辞中的绝对正义城邦的乌托邦性之二:违反自然 29-32
    3. 言辞中绝对正义城邦的堕落 32-33
    4. 政治事务本性的阐明——为最终化解哲人与城邦冲突奠基 33-35
四、哲人与城邦间紧张冲突关系的最终化解 35-46
    1. 哲人改变生存方式,成为政治哲人 35-37
    2. 影响立法者,努力实现法治国家 37-43
    3. 诗教 43-46
五、柏拉图政治哲学对后世的影响 46-49
注释 49-54
主要参考文献 54-56
致谢 56-57
攻读学位期间发表的学术论文目录 57

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