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关于列宁利用和发展国家资本主义思想之研究

更新时间 2009-12-3 18:35:58 点击数:

关于列宁利用和发展国家资本主义思想之研究
Lenin on the Use and Development of National Capitalist Ideas of Research
【摘要】 对于无产阶级国家政权下的国家资本主义问题,在马克思恩格斯学说里还是个空白。列宁在经过了十月革命胜利初期的实践和国内革命战争时期的实践以后,到新经济政策时期,已经认识到必须根据本国的具体国情,制定有利于小生产者利益的政策和措施,进而促进生产力的发展,为向社会主义过渡创造经济条件。列宁当时主张采取的新政策有实行粮食税,允许贸易自由,实行租让制等等。然而这些政策和措施的施行,必然会带来资本主义经济关系的发展。列宁认为,在小生产占优势的苏俄,应该允许资本主义的发展,只有这样才能创造出社会主义所需要的物质条件。“既然我们还不能实现从小生产到社会主义的直接过渡,所以作为小生产和交换的自发产物的资本主义,在一定程度上是不可避免的,所以我们应当利用资本主义(特别要把它那纳入国家资本主义的轨道)作为小生产和社会主义之间的中间环节,作为提高生产力的手段、途径、方法和方式。”[1]这表明列宁已经充分认识到要通过国家资本主义走向社会主义。发展国家资本主义是在新经济政策条件下向社会主义过渡的必要准备;它是改变落后的小生产,发展生产力的必要措施;它是巩固工农联盟、监督和战胜小资产阶级自发势力的必要保证;它是调节资本主义、使之服从、并为无产阶级国家服务的必要途径;它是在和平的国际环境下推动本国发展的必然要求。列宁主张通过租让制、租借制、合作制、代购代销制等形式发展国家资本主义。然而,列宁逝世后,斯大林不仅没有延续列宁的在新经济政策基础上大力发展国家资本主义的思路,反而逐步停止了这种利用国家资本主义向社会主义过渡的政策。斯大林逝世之后,前苏联几位领导者从赫鲁晓夫、勃列日涅夫到戈尔巴乔夫始终没有恢复到列宁的发展国家资本主义的道路上。尽管列宁的发展国家资本主义的指导思想没有在苏维埃俄国得到继承和发展,但是在列宁时期的这种实践,对当时苏维埃俄国经济的恢复、政权的巩固具有重要的历史意义,并且为落后国家利用资本主义,通过国家资本主义走向社会主义开了先河。正确认识和理解列宁的国家资本主义思想,对于我们推进改革开放进程,加速社会主义现代化建设都具有重要的当代价值。 

【Abstract】 For the proletarian state power under the issue of state capitalism, Marx and Engels, in theory, still a blank. Lenin, after the initial victory of the October Revolution and the practice of revolutionary war period after the practice, to a new period of economic policy, Lenin has recognized the need in accordance with its own specific national conditions, the development is conducive to the interests of small producers of policies and measures, thereby promoting The development of productive forces, for the transition to socialism to create economic conditions. Lenin at that time advocate the adoption of the new policy is implemented food tax, to allow freedom of trade, implementation of the concession system, and so on. However, these policies and measures implemented, will inevitably bring about the development of relations between the capitalist economy. Lenin's view, the advantages of small-scale production of the Soviet Union, should allow the development of capitalism, the only way to create a socialist material conditions required. "Since we can not be realized from the production of direct transition to socialism, as a small production and exchange of spontaneous product of capitalism, to a certain extent is inevitable, so we should take advantage of capitalism (especially that it should be included The orbit of state capitalism) as a small production and socialism between the intermediate links, as a means of increasing productivity, ways, methods and means. "[1] Lenin has been fully recognized through state capitalism to socialism.The development of national capitalism in the new economic policy under the conditions of the transition to socialism in the necessary preparations and it is to change the backward small-scale production, development of productive forces necessary measures that it is consolidating the worker-peasant alliance, and supervision over the petty bourgeoisie and the need to ensure that their own forces It is the regulation of capitalism, make it subordinate to and proletarian state services necessary way it is in a peaceful international environment to promote the inevitable demand of national development. Lenin stands for the system to rent, lease system, cooperative system, Daigou sales agency system, and other forms of development of national capitalism.However, after the death of Lenin, Stalin, Lenin did not continue in the new economic policy, vigorously developing countries on the basis of capitalist ideas, instead of phasing out the use of state capitalism that the transition to a socialist policy. After Stalin's death, several leaders of the former Soviet Union from Khrushchev, Brezhnev Gorbachev never to return to Lenin's development of the capitalist countries on the road.Although Lenin's development of state capitalism's guiding ideology in the Soviet Russia has not been inherited and developed, but in practice this period of Lenin, the Soviet of the Russian economy at the time of recovery, the consolidation of political power has an important historical significance, and for the backward Countries to take advantage of capitalism, state capitalism to socialism through the open ground.Correct understanding of Lenin's ideological capitalist countries, we promote reform and opening up process, speed up socialist modernization drive is an important contemporary values. 

【关键词】 列宁; 国家资本主义; 当代价值
【Key words】 Leninism; state capitalism; contemporary values
  关于列宁利用和发展国家资本主义思想之研究

中文摘要 4-6
ABSTRACT 6-8
一、引言 10-13
二、列宁对国家资本主义的认识历程 13-18
    (一) 十月革命前夜的最初构想 13-14
    (二) 1918 年春夏之间明确认识 14-16
    (三) 新经济政策时期认识深化 16-17
    (四) 在党的十一大上认识完善 17-18
三、利用和发展国家资本主义的必要性 18-23
    (一) 解决俄国社会经济矛盾的必然选择 18
    (二) 向社会主义过渡的必要准备 18-19
    (三) 发展生产力的必要措施 19-20
    (四) 巩固工农联盟和经济基础的必要保证 20-21
    (五) 调节资本主义,使之服从无产阶级国家的必要途径 21
    (六) 向资本主义国家学习的必经之路 21-23
四、发展国家资本主义的途径 23-26
    (一) 租让制 23-24
    (二) 合作制 24-25
    (三) 代购代销制 25
    (四) 租借制 25-26
五、苏联利用和发展国家资本主义思想的历史命运 26-39
    (一) 斯大林继续利用资本主义建设社会主义 26-27
    (二) 苏联逐渐偏离了利用和发展国家资本主义的思想 27-29
    (三) 利用和发展国家资本主义的历史价值 29-30
        1. 现实意义 29
        2. 理论意义 29-30
        3. 历史教训 30
    (四) 利用和发展国家资本主义的当代价值 30-39
        1. 立足国情,从实际出发 31-33
        2. 大力发展生产力 33
        3. 维护人民利益 33-34
        4. 利用资本主义的一切积极的文明成果 34-39
结论 39-40
参考文献 40-43
致谢 43

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