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当代资本主义发展与中国的学习和借鉴

更新时间 2009-12-3 18:33:29 点击数:

【摘要】 21世纪是社会主义和资本主义两种制度并存的世纪。资本主义的变化与发展直接影响其历史命运和社会主义理论与实践的全面发展。当今资本主义国家特别是发达资本主义国家,发生了与战前不可相比的新变化,显示出若干新特点,并在资本主义社会内部出现一系列社会主义新因素。这些新因素的出现不但没有使资本主义自觉过渡到社会主义,而且使资本主义在近期内仍显示出巨大的生命力。在和平与发展成为世界主题的今天,对“曾经在历史上起过非常革命作用”的资本主义,我们更应正确认识和了解它的历史作用与演变进程,只有这样才能探索出一条中国特色社会主义的发展道路。本文通过观察和思考当代资本主义的发展历程及其新变化、新发展来正确认识资本主义的本质及其发展规律,这对于现实社会主义国家处理好两制国家关系,对于发展中国特色社会主义都有重要的意义。本文除引言和结语外,包括三个主要部分。第一部分,从历史角度概括阐述了资本主义发展历程、特点及其新变化,从理论角度对当代资本主义新社会因素进行综合分析和阐述,指出资本主义发展的趋势。社会主义是对资本主义的继承和改造,要正确认识和建设社会主义,首先应对资本主义要有一个正确的认识,这是大前提。第二部分是文章的主体,论述了资本主义发展对落后社会主义国家和发展中国家的影响,指出和平与发展仍是世界主题,落后国家迈向现代化的唯一出路就是借鉴与学习资本主义的先进文明成果。第三部分是文章的重点,分析阐述了中国特色社会主义对资本主义文明成果的借鉴与学习。中国作为社会主义国家,改革开放以来虽有巨大飞跃,但是距离资本主义国家还有不小的差距。中国特色社会主义正处于初级阶段,政治经济文化等各个方面还不协调,制度建设还不完善,这就要求我们在与资本主义和平共处的同时,积极借鉴资本主义发展变化中的合理性因素,完善自己,从而在国际竞争中取得优势地位,实现对资本主义的超越。文章这一部分具体从物质文明、政治文明、社会文明和精神文明四方面对如何在社会主义事业推进中科学借鉴资本主义发展的先进因素进行了论证与总结。文章结尾展望出一个世界大同的美好前途,指出21世纪世界发展的新趋势和新前景。本文首先运用历史综合以及比较研究的方法,对资本主义历史发展进行综合、比较,找出资本主义新阶段的新特点,预测出资本主义发展的新趋向。其次,对中国发展和资本主义发展的关系进行比较研究,以建设中国特色社会主义为落脚点,分析资本主义发展对中国的借鉴意义。

【Abstract】 The socialist system and the Capitalist system Coexist in 21st century. The Change and development of capitalism directly affect its destiny in history, and affect the all-round development of socialist theory and practice. Among today's capitalist countries, especially the developed capitalist countries, there happen some new characters which are different with the pre-war status. A series of new elements of socialism Appear in capitalist societies, which didn’t only make the capitalism into the transition to socialism consciously, but also shows that still the capitalism has enormous vitality in the near future. Today, peace and development has been the subject of the world. To capitalist that was once very revolutionary in history, we should correctly understand and know the history of its role and the process of evolution. This is the only way for us to explore a road for development of socialism with Chinese characteristics. In this paper, the author tried to understand the nature of capitalism and the law of its development correctly through observing and considering the development process of contemporary capitalism and its new changes. This has great significance in the reality for the socialist countries deal with the relationship with capitalist countries, and for the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics.Besides the introduction and concluding remarks, this article includes three main components. In the first part, the author summarized the course of capitalist development, characteristics, and new changes in a historical perspective. The author pointed out the trend of capitalist development through the comprehensive analysis of new social factors in capitalism from a theoretical point of view. Socialism is the successor and transformation of capitalism. To correctly understand and to build socialism, the premise is to have a correct understanding to capitalism. The second part is the main part of the article. In this part the author discussed the influence of the development of capitalist countries to socialist countries and developing countries. After pointing out that peace and development remains the subject of the world, the author found out that the only way to be modern for backward countries is to learn and study the advanced capitalist civilization. As the focus of article, in the third part the author analyzed the learning and studying of socialism with Chinese characteristics from capitalist civilization. As a socialist country, there has been a great gap between China and capitalist countries, although there was a huge leap forward since the reform and opening-up in 1978. The socialism with Chinese characteristics is at the initial stage, system is not perfect, there are not discordant among the political, economic, cultural and other aspects. This requires us to learn the rationality from the development of capitalism to improve ourselves, and coexists with capitalism peacefully in order to obtain advantages in international competition and eventually go beyond the implementation of capitalism. About how to learn from the advanced capitalist factors to promote the socialist cause, in this part the author gives an argument from the three aspects of material civilization, political civilization and spiritual civilization. At the end of the article, the author looked forward to a future of universal brotherhood, and pointed out the world's new trends and prospects of development in 21st century.In this paper, at first the author uses the General methods and history comparative study of methods, and has a Comprehensive and comparative to Historical development of capitalism to find the new features in the new stage of capitalism, and finally has the prediction of the new trend of capitalist development. Secondly, the author has a comparative study on the relationship between China's development and the development of capitalism. To building socialism with Chinese characteristics, the author analyzes the reference to China of the Capitalist development. 

【关键词】 资本主义; 社会主义; 中国特色; 借鉴
【Key words】 Capitalist; Socialist; Chinese Characteristics; Reference
  当代资本主义发展与中国的学习和借鉴

中文摘要 6-8
ABSTRACT 8-9
第1章 引言 11-15
    1.1 选题意义 11-12
    1.2 国内外研究现状 12-14
        1.2.1 国外研究现状 12-13
        1.2.2 国内研究现状 13-14
    1.3 创新之处 14-15
第2章 当代资本主义的历史发展、特点和趋向 15-29
    2.1 迄今资本主义经历的四个发展阶段 15-23
        2.1.1 封建资本主义阶段 15-16
        2.1.2 自由资本主义阶段 16
        2.1.3 垄断资本主义阶段 16-17
        2.1.4 当今资本主义发展正处于社会资本主义阶段 17-23
    2.2 社会资本主义阶段的新变化 23-27
        2.2.1 生产力方面 23
        2.2.2 生产关系方面 23-25
        2.2.3 上层建筑方面 25-26
        2.2.4 全球化的进一步深化 26-27
    2.3 社会资本主义的发展趋向 27-29
第3章 社会主义学习借鉴资本主义的机遇和条件 29-38
    3.1 当代资本主义的新变化对世界社会主义运动存在着冲击和发展双重影响 29-32
    3.2 和平与发展的世界趋势为中国发展提供了良好的国际环境 32-36
        3.2.1 “和平与发展”为世界社会主义事业发展提供了新条件和新环境 32-33
        3.2.2 世界社会主义面临的既是机遇又是挑战 33-36
    3.3 学习和借鉴当代资本主义是落后国家建设社会主义迈向现代化的重要渠道 36-38
第4章 积极借鉴发达国家先进成果,发展中国特色社会主义 38-61
    4.1 借鉴资本主义创造的先进物质技术条件 39-47
        4.1.1 借鉴资本主义市场经济的合理性因素,完善中国社会主义市场经济 39-41
        4.1.2 借鉴资本主义生产经营的现代化管理经验和先进的科学技术,进行产业结构调整,转变经济增长方式 41-43
        4.1.3 借鉴资本主义国家重视中小企业的经验,全面繁荣中国整个国民经济 43-45
        4.1.4 借鉴资本主义国家环境保护的经验和教训,科学地发展正在高速运转中的中国经济 45-47
    4.2 借鉴资本主义先进的政治文明成果 47-54
        4.2.1 借鉴资本主义国家民主政治经验,把竞争引入国家权力机构,实现权力的制衡,发展中国特色社会主义民主政治 48-50
        4.2.2 借鉴资本主义管理经验,转换政府职能,创建节约有效性政府 50-51
        4.2.3 借鉴发达资本主义国家完备的法律制度,建设社会主义法制社会 51-54
    4.3 借鉴资本主义先进的社会建设经验 54-57
    4.4 借鉴资本主义先进的精神文明成果 57-61
        4.4.1 借鉴资本主义先进思想建设成果,完善社会主义价值体系 57-58
        4.4.2 借鉴资本主义宝贵的道德建设成果,提高中华民族道德风范和中国人的品格风貌 58-60
        4.4.3 借鉴资本主义优秀的文化建设成果,构建中国特色社会主义的现代新文化 60-61
第5章 结语:展望中国特色社会主义和人类发展的美好前途——世界大同 61-63
注释 63-65
参考文献 65-68
致谢 68-69
攻读硕士学位期间发表的学术论文目录 69

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