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作为生活方式的民主

更新时间 2009-9-10 12:40:43 点击数:

作为生活方式的民主
【中文摘要】 20世纪90年代以来,中外学术界的“杜威研究”在广度和深度上都有明显增加,进入了一个“重新认识杜威”的阶段,尤其是对杜威的社会理论和民主思想的研究成为了新的焦点之一。本文从杜威对传统哲学的改造、对传统民主理论的批判开始,试着将其哲学思想和政治思想结合起来,从政治、经济、工业和社会四个方面来论述其“民主哲学”——“作为生活方式的民主”。杜威从传统哲学的起源开始,批判了传统哲学的辩护功能,以及将哲学与生活隔离开来的倾向,开始了对哲学的改造。他将其“民主哲学”视为哲学在政治领域内的实现、哲学改造的完成。“民主哲学”与传统的“政治民主”—重心在议会政治的建构和市场机制的维持—是截然不同的。在杜威的“民主”理论中,“民主”成了一种生活方式,包括政治民主、经济民主、工业民主和社会民主四个方面,其最终目的就是实现这四个方面的“民主共同体”。分享“经验”是人类的最高道德,而这只有在“共同体”内才能实现。这时,教育也就成了“雏形的共同体”生活本身:它既是实现“民主”社会的“助产婆”,也是一种“民主”的生活方式。杜威说,如果我们不满意现状,只能怪我们自己。经历了“秦中飞”案、“孟母堂”事件之后,我们再来重温一下他“民主的生活方式”,对建设政治民主、以人为本的现代化中国无疑具有重要的现实意义。

【英文摘要】 Since 1990s, the study on Dewey's philosophy of education and its meaning has an obvious increase in the breadth and the depth in the Chinese and foreign academic circles, and soon entered a stage when people have come to know about him clearly. In particular, the research on Dewey's social theory and democratic idea has become one of new focal points. Beginning from the traditional philosophy transformation and traditional democratic theory critique, Dewey makes attempts to unify its philosophic thinking and the political thinking. He elaborates the democratic philosophy from four aspects—politics, the economy, the industry and the social, which is regarded as the life style of the democracy.Starting from the origin of traditional philosophy, Dewey criticized the defense function of traditional philosophy as well as a tendency which isolated with the life .So he started to take up philosophy transformation. Dewey thought the democratic philosophy as an performance in the political field—philosophy transformation completion. The Democratic Philosophy differs from Traditional Political Democracy, whose center of gravity is in the parliamentary politics construction and the market mechanism maintenance.In Dewey's democratic theory, the democracy has become one life style, including Political Democracy, Industry Democracy, Economical Democracy and Social Democracy .The final goal is to realize these four democratic communities. The shared experience is the highest of humanity's morals, but only in its community can it realize . By now, the education also has become a embryonic community—that is life itself. The education is the life. In other words, the education is the embryonic form of Life Community itself. It is not only the midwife to realize the democratic society but also one democratic life style.Dewey said, if we are not content with present situation, we can only blame ourself. After experiencing "qinzhongfei" case and memorial temple of the mencius'mother , We experienced again the life style of democracy, which has the vital practical significance for constructing the democratical politics and humanist modernized China without doubt.

【中文关键词】 杜威; 经验; 民主; 共同体; 教育
【英文关键词】 John Dewey ; Experience ; Democracy ; Community; Education
中文摘要 3-4
英文摘要 4
引言 5-11
第一章 哲学的改造 11-17
第二章 作为生活方式的民主 17-22
第三章 政治民主:自由与平等并驾齐驱 22-28
第四章 工业民主和经济民主 28-32
第五章 社会民主:“人性地图” 32-35
第六章 民主地教育:雏形的民主生活 35-41
结论 41-46
参考文献 46-49

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