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中英爱情隐喻的认知对比研究

更新时间 2009-9-16 13:48:36 点击数:

中英爱情隐喻的认知对比研究
A Cognitive Comparative Study of English and Chinese Love Metaphors
【中文摘要】 在传统修辞学中隐喻只是被当作一种修辞格来看待,将一物比作另一物的同时省略了比喻词的一种表达方式。适当地使用隐喻,可以使文学作品更加富有新意,印象深刻,人们通常认为只有诗人和文学家能够出色地运用隐喻。隐喻的修辞学研究,最早可追溯到亚里士多德时代,其观点影响了两千多年。直到二十世纪八十年代随着认知语言学的兴起,隐喻的作用开始获得重新认识。在新兴的认知语言学中,隐喻占据着重要的位置:它被当作一种重要的认识工具来帮助我们更好地了解这个世界。认知语言学的奠基人莱可夫和约翰逊认为,隐喻在语言和思维中是无处不在的,并占据重要地位,可以看作是一种思维方式。人类的概念系统不可避免的由隐喻构成。隐喻在人类的思维和认知的深层次起作用,同时也在日常生活中以系统的方式出现。隐喻的本质就是通过另一类事物来理解和经历某一类事物。语言中的隐喻表达是隐喻性思维的表层体现。而文化背景知识是隐喻的语言环境,是隐喻概念形成的源泉,是研究隐喻思维的沃土。众所周知,爱情是文学作品永恒的主题,也是人类各种情感体验中最普遍、最神秘、最复杂、最抽象的情感之一。人们往往借助具体或有形的事物来描述它,英汉两种语言中有关爱情的隐喻非常丰富。本文从认知语言学的角度通过对中英爱情隐喻进行对比分析,旨在支持现代的隐喻理论。研究发现英汉两种语言对于同一概念爱情有许多相同的隐喻,例如“旅程”,“战争”,“植物”等,这是由于隐喻是植根于自身体验的。但同时由于英汉两种不同的文化对爱情隐喻概念的形成有着深远的影响也存在着很多不同,例如基督教,古希腊罗马文化影响了英语中爱情的概化,而道教、佛教、儒家学说等影响了汉语中爱情的概化。本文的研究证实了隐喻既有普遍性又有差异性,隐喻对人类理解抽象事物,理解客观世界发挥着重要的作用,而且也符合隐喻的形成是建立在自身的体验之上的理论。人类的每一种经验都发生在特定的文化背景和文化模式之中,因而,隐喻中蕴涵着丰富的文化特征,文化相对性导致了不同民族隐喻概念之间的差异。本文为隐喻研究提供了新的视角,对深入了解隐喻与文化,隐喻与思维的关系有一定意义。同时,它可以使人们对爱情这个概念有更好更清楚的理解,有助于外语教学某些文化问题方面的理解。 

【英文摘要】 In the traditional rhetoric,metaphor is only a figure of speech,a way of expression in which one thing is compared to another by saying that one is the other, leaving out such words as "as" or "like".Properly using metaphor can make literature works more innovative and impressive.People usually think only poets and writers can excellently employ metaphors.The research on metaphor rhetoric can trace back to Aristotle and his view has influenced the world for over 2000 years.Until the rising of cognitive linguistics in the 1980s,the function of metaphor has been reevaluated. In the newly emerging cognitive linguistics,metaphor occupies a very important position:it is an important tool to help us to better know this world.The founder of cognitive linguistics,Lakoff and Johnson believe that metaphor is pervasive in language and thinking;it occupies an important position and it can be regarded as a way of thinking.The conception system of human beings inevitably consists of metaphor.Metaphor has effect on the thinking and cognition of human beings,and also appears in daily life.The nature of metaphor is to understand and experience one thing through another thing.The metaphor expression in language is the superficial embodiment of metaphor thinking and the cultural background knowledge is the language environment of metaphor,the source of metaphor concept formation and the rich land for research on metaphor thinking.It is well known that love is a permanent topic of literature works and love is also one of the most pervasive and mysterious and complicated and abstract emotions. There are plenty of rich conceptual metaphors of love in English and Chinese.People usually rely on concrete objects to depict love.From the perspective of cognitive linguistics,this thesis aims to support modem metaphor theory through the comparative analysis of English and Chinese love metaphors.It is found that there are similar conceptual metaphors of love in both English and Chinese,for example, "journey","war",and "plant" and so on,because conceptual metaphor is rooted in oneself experience;however,there are also differences arising from profound influence of English and Chinese cultures on the love conceptualization,for example Christianity,ancient Greek and Roman cultures in English,and Taoism,Buddhism, Confucianism and so on in Chinese.This thesis proves that metaphor has both universality and diversity and metaphor exerts important functions for human beings to understand abstract objects and objective world.That also conforms to the theory that the formation of metaphor is based on the experience of human beings.Moreover,every experience of human beings occurs in specific cultural background and cultural model,thus,metaphor has exuberant cultural characteristics.Cultural relativity results in the concept differences among different nations.This thesis provides a new perspective for metaphor research and is useful to deeply understand the relations between metaphor and culture,and between metaphor and thinking.Meanwhile,it also lets people understand love concept more clearly and it is helpful for understanding cultural issues in foreign language teaching. 

【中文关键词】 认知语言学; 隐喻; 爱情; 文化
【英文关键词】 cognitive linguistics; metaphor; love; culture
毕业论文目录】
Acknowledgements 4-5
Abstract 5-6
摘要 7-11
Chapter One Introduction 11-14
    1.1 Need for the Study 11-12
    1.2 Research Questions and Methodology 12
    1.3 Organization of the Thesis 12-14
Chapter Two Literatur Review 14-26
    2.1 Traditional Theories of Metaphor 15-22
        2.1.1 Comparison Theory of Metaphor 15-16
        2.1.2 Substitution Theory of Metaphor 16-18
        2.1.3 Interaction Theory of Metaphor 18-22
    2.2 Contemporary Theories of Metaphor 22-24
    2.3 Metaphor Study in China 24-26
Chapter Three Theoretical Foundation 26-42
    3.1 An Overview of Cognitive Linguistics 26-31
        3.1.1 Categorization and Prototype 28-29
        3.1.2 Image Schema 29-31
        3.1.3 Philosophical Basis of Metaphor 31
    3.2 A Cognitive Approach to Metaphor 31-39
        3.2.1 The Main Characteristics of Metaphor 32-35
        3.2.2 The Working Mechanism of Metaphor 35-37
        3.2.3 The Classification of Metaphor 37-39
    3.3 Language,Metaphor and Culture 39-42
        3.3.1 Relations between Language and Culture 39-40
        3.3.2 Relations between Metaphor and Culture 40-42
Chapter Four A Comparative Analysis of Conceptual Metaphors of Love in English and Chinese 42-78
    4.1 The Introduction of Studies on Love 42-47
        4.1.1 Love Definition 42-45
        4.1.2 Studies on Love in Different Disciplines 45-47
    4.2 A Case Study of Conceptual Metaphor of Love 47-50
        4.2.1 Purpose 47
        4.2.2 Methodology 47-50
    4.3 Universality of Conceptual Metaphors of Love in English and Chinese 50-71
        4.3.1 Love is Journey 50-52
        4.3.2 Love is Human 52-55
        4.3.3 Love is War 55-57
        4.3.4 Love is a Plant 57-60
        4.3.5 Love is Fire 60-61
        4.3.6 Love is Unity 61-67
        4.3.7 Love is something in Container 67-68
        4.3.8 Love is Commodity 68-69
        4.3.9 Love is Human Body 69-71
    4.4 Differences of Conceptual Metaphors of Love in English and Chinese 71-75
        4.4.1 Love is Deity 71
        4.4.2 Love is Nutrient 71-72
        4.4.3 Love is Agricultural production 72-74
        4.4.4 Love is Predestined Relationship 74-75
    4.5 Implications of the Study for ESL 75-78
Chapter Five Conclusion 78-81
    5.1 Significance of the Study 78-79
    5.2 Limitations of the Study 79-80
    5.3 Suggestions for Future Research 80-81
References 81-85

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