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英语本科生毕业论文

更新时间 2010-12-23 8:54:13 点击数:

    英语过渡语语用功能浅析
李凤东(鸡西大学西语系,黑龙江鸡西158100)
     摘要:英语是一种结构性、逻辑性都比较强的语言,与汉语依赖语序和虚词这种意连方式不同,英语主要依靠一些过渡手段来连接上下文,使之形成一个连贯且具有逻辑性、条理性的语言整体。因此在口语和书面语表达中,学会恰当使用英语过渡语会使语言更加流畅并具有感染力。对英语过渡语的语用功能进行了初步分析,希望对英语学习有一定的借鉴意义。
     关键词:英语;过渡语;语用功能
    中图分类号:H314文献标志码:A文章编号:1674-6341(2010)06-0155-02
    收稿日期:2010-10-11
    作者简介:李凤东(1978-),女,黑龙江人,讲师,从事英语教学研究。
    英语过渡语(transitional expressions)是一种关系引导手段,一般由副词或起到副词作用的短语来承接。此外,代词、连词、上下文的近义词等也可以作过渡词。过渡语能起到启、承、转、合等作用,使篇章或语段融会贯通,有机地连成一体。
    过渡语就像是语言不同部分间的桥梁一样,其有助于语义在句与句间,段落与段落间的准确、顺畅衔接。
    1英语过渡语分类
    1.1按功能分1.1.1表示时间顺序的过渡词now,after,before,during,later,then,next,yet,when,while,as,often,suddenly,temporarily,immediately,previous-ly,first,firstly,above all,first of all,finally,in the end,atlast,afterwards(后来),meanwhile(几乎同时),thereafter(在那以后),eventually(终于).
    1.1.2表示对比、比较的过渡词although,even though,in contrast,instead,but,however,in spite of,nevertheless,yet,unlike,likewise,similarly,simi-lar to.
    1.1.3表示原因的过渡词
    a consequence of,because,because of,since,for,as,now that,thanks to,due to.
    1.1.4表示结果的过渡词
    therefore,as a result,consequently,so,thus.
    1.1.5表示举例的过渡词
    for example,including,for instance,like,such as.
    1.1.6表示并列关系的过渡词
    and,also,as well,as well as,or,too,not only...but al-so,both...and,either...or,neither...nor.
    1.1.7表示递进关系的过渡词
    besides,in addition(加上,除……之外),moreover(此外,而且),what’s more,what’s worse.
    1.1.8表转折的过渡词
    but,however,yet,instead.on the other hand,on the con-trary,although,different from,despite,in spite of,whereas,unlike,nevertheless,here...there,the former...the latter,then...now,some...others.
    1.1.9表示条件的过渡词
    if,unless,on condition that,so long as.
    1.1.10表示时间的过渡词
    when,while,after,before,until,as soon as,later,after-wards,soon,lately,recently,since,from then on,eventually,in the meantime,then,at the same time,next,after a while,ina few days,all of a sudden,at present,the moment finally.
    1.1.11表示换一种方式表达的过渡词in other words,that is to say,to put it another way.
    1.1.12表示陈述事实的过渡词
    fact,actually,as a matter of fact,to tell you the truth.
    1.1.13表示强调的过渡词
    certainly,indeed,above all,surely,most important,infact,no doubt,without any doubt,truly,obviously.
    1.1.14表示目的的过渡词
    for this purpose,so that,in order to,so as to.
    1.1.15表示总结的过渡词
    in a word(总之,简言之),in general,in short(总之),a-bove all,after all,generally speaking,to sum up.finally,inconclusion,at last,in summary.
    1.2按使用位置分
    英语语篇间的逻辑关系主要由过渡词来完成,在修辞中称为启、承、转、合。“启”就是开头,“承”是承接,“转”是转折,“合”是综合或总结。下面将分别给予介绍。
    1.2.1常用于开始位置,起到“启”的作用的过渡词语和句子(1)起到“启”的作用的过渡词语:with(the development/progress/growth of economy/socie-ty),first,first of all,at first,in the first place,firstly,to startwith,to begin with,recently,in recent years,in general,atpresent,lately,currently.
    (2)起到“启”的作用的过渡句式:Generally speaking...
    It is often said that...
    As the proverb says...
    It goes without saying that...
    It is clear/obvious that...
    Many people often ask...
    1.2.2常用于语篇拓展,起到“承”的作用的过渡词、句(1)起到“承”的作用的过渡词语:second,similarly,in addition,besides,then,furthermore,moreover,what is more,what is worse,for example,for in-stance,certainly,surely,obviously,in other words,especially,particularly,in particular,indeed,still,third,truly,in fact,atthe same time,no doubt.
    (2)起到“承”的作用的过渡句式:It is true that...
    Everybody knows that...
    It can be easily proved that...
    No one can deny that...
    The reason why...is that...
    There is no doubt that...
    To take...for an example(instance)...
    We know that...
    What is more serious is that...
    1.2.3常用于语篇拓展,起到“转”的作用的过渡词、句(1)起到“转”的作用的过渡词语:but,however,on the other hand,on the contrary,in con-trast,in any case,at any rate(无论如何),nevertheless(虽然如此),otherwise,or,or else,while,whereas,but,despite,inspite of...,yet,instead.
    (2)英语毕业论文网中起到“转”的作用的过渡句式:I do not believe that...
    Perhaps you’ll ask why...
    This may be true,but we still have a problem with regardto...
    Though we are in basic agreement with...,yet differenceswill be foundThat’s why I feel that...
    1.2.4常用于表示结论,起到“合”的作用的过渡词、句(1)起到“合”的作用的过渡词语:in a word,in general,in short,above all,after all,gener-ally speaking,to sum up,finally,in conclusion,at last,in sum-mary,therefore,as a result,above all,thus,after all(毕竟),eventually,hence,in short,in conclusion,in a word,in sum(总之),on the whole(就整体而言),to sum up.
    (2)起到“合”的作用的过渡句式:From this point of view...
    On account of this we can find that...
    The result is dependent on...
    Thus,this is the reason why we must...
    2一个特殊过渡词“so(那么)”的用法2.1表示顺承关系如:So he decided to quit.所以他决定退出。
    So reform is urgently needed.因此,改革刻不容缓。
    2.2表示转折关系
    如:So how did everything go?那么一切都还好吧?So what are the risks?那么吸烟究竟有什么危害呢?So how did it go?那结果怎么样?So,what do you have?那么,你们有什么呢?So the weekend is coming!周末就要到啦!So what do you recommend?那你说该怎么办?So,it is why people are so often nostalgic.由此我们就不难看出人类喜欢怀旧的原因。
    So what do you wanna do today?你今天想做些什么?So,um...May I get your number?嗯,我能留下你的电话号码吗?So,Jack,how can I help you?指挥官,我能帮你什么?So,how is your wife doing,Howard?那嫂夫人最近好吗?2.3表示倒装语法结构的“so”,不同于过渡词“so”如:So it is with me.我也一样。
    So I understand.和我了解的一样。
    So do we.我们也这样希望。
    英语过渡语是一个相对独立的语法成分,是篇章、语段中不可缺少的成分,它可以保证上下文间的逻辑意义一致,起到连接的作用。英语过渡语在英语中作用巨大,不可忽视,要想学好英语语言就必须对其有较好的掌握,学会使用过渡语可使篇章与语段结构更紧凑,上下文更连贯,逻辑性、可读性增强。
    参考文献:
    [1]陆国强.现代英语词汇学[M].上海:上海外语教育出版社,1983.
    [2]张尧学.加强实用性英语教学,提高大学生英语综合能力[J].中国高等教育,2002,(8).
    [3]刘润清.论大学英语教学[M].北京:外语教学与研究出版社,1999. 返回栏目页:学术英语论文

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