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民初现代小说家群体考察

更新时间 2009-12-9 14:00:14 点击数:

民初现代小说家群体考察
Study Groups Early Days of the Republic of Modern Novelists
【摘要】 民初现代小说家群体是我国现代文学史上第一批闯将,他们对中国现代文学有筚路蓝缕、披荆斩棘的开拓之功,他们对中国整个现代文学影响深远,他们对中国的文化事业做出了巨大贡献。所以,对他们的研究从未间断。本文从社会学、历史学的角度对民初现代小说家群体进行了考察,运用了辩证唯物主义的科学方法进行分析,从民初现代小说家群体的生成社会背景、内部结构、转型与分化、社会交往、社会价值五方面展开论述。鸦片战争后,中国陷入水深火热之中,有识之士开始为苦难深重的中国寻找出路,他们开始创办各种刊物,宣传自由民主思想,启蒙主义思潮兴起,为现代小说家出世提供了思想基础。列强的入侵使中国走向灾难的深渊,同时也把西方的文学传入中国,提高了小说家的文学修养。近代印刷业的发展使文学作品传播更加便利,也为现代小说家提供了谋生之路。“五四”新文化运动使自由民主思想深入人心,在“五四”新文化运动的大潮中,现代小说家登上了小说创作舞台。民初现代小说家是一个比较特殊的群体。他们大多数出生于官僚地主或富商家庭,受到了良好的教育。但当时重男轻女的观念还存在着,女性在社会活动中受到很多限制,小说家中的女性远远少于男性。民初时期的现代小说家经济地位并不高,生活状况处于社会中下层。许多人并不是一开始就走小说创作之路,踏上小说道路后,一部分人选择了其他道路。另一部分小说家过早的离开了人世,令人惋惜。在当时社会,现代小说家与作家、出版商、读者的交往比较频繁。

【Abstract】 After the Opium War,has five millennium civilization Chinese empire to start to fall into is invaded in the crisis which carves up.The intention world writers start to step the country prosperous common people's strong long road.The reform political reform,the 1911 Revolution,a May 4th Movement of 1919 curtain historical drama pulls open the curtain.They shout the society to transform anxiously,shouts the literary revolution anxiously,they shout are towing modern writer of fiction's entering the stage.At the same time,foreign invasion,not only has brought the firm ship advantage artillery,also has brought the foreign literature.This created the new form for China's modern writers of fiction the novel to get up not the small influence.Simultaneously the publishing industry development greatly has also stimulated writer of fiction's creation desire,not only because the publishing industry rapid development causes these not wealthy modern writer of fiction to buy the quite cheap literature books,moreover also causes their literary work to publish in the publication facilitates extremely,thus obtains certain payment for published piece.The Beiyang warlords rule the time the modern writer of fiction community's internal structure to have very many similarities,also has very many different places.The modern writer of fiction mostly is born in the declining feudal big family, their ancestry or the person of father's generation mostly are the feudal bureaucrat perhaps the rich merchant.But declines to theirs child or the teen all family fortune, therefore they all more or less have accepted the feudalistic thinking culture and education in childhood,after the imperial civil service examination cancels on the new style school study,but also had very many people to step onto has gone abroad to study the road.From the cultural structure,the modern writer of fiction mostly has accepted the higher education,moreover has quite part of people to go abroad has studied abroad,some people have also obtained doctor the master's degree.Because at that time China was precisely by the feudal society the time which transforms to the capitalist society,therefore regards men as superior to women the thought also deeply imprints in the people heart,therefore,the Beiyang warlords rule the time modern writer of fiction's male and female proportion quite disparate.The female writer of fiction may say is extremely rare.The human is society's animal,human's activity cannot leave the society,the modern writer of fiction is not exceptional.Time the Beiyang warlords rule the time are precisely Chinese modern novel breeding and appear,but writer of fiction's payment for published piece level difference quite was at that time big,highest factor Lu Xun and so on first-class everybody,but their lengthy creation quantity then were very few,Mr.Lu Xun linked one lengthy all not to create.Therefore their payment for published piece are not many,this causes them to be able not but to be engaged in many kinds of occupations.Mainly concentrates in following several kind of occupations:Translator,teacher,reporter,edition,therefore they associate frequently with these profession people.Rules this section of time the latter Qing dynasty to Beiyang,the Chinese society ever changing,complex complex.But has one not to change:China still receives the big powers insult devastating.Is ambitious the Chinese,specially these is ambitious the Chinese youth intellectual,their unceasing exploration is saving the nation plans to be stronger the road.At that time some very resounding slogan “enrich the country and strengthen its military power”.Therefore,then was ambitious the youth mostly to advocate the science,they studied the research scientific knowledge earnestly,looked like Lu Xun,the pure-heart,Guo Moruo,Yu Dafu,becomes imitates us all mainly to study the medicine,the economic,the military study and so on the scientific knowledge,but studied the literature the human were not many.But because the different reason caused the modern writers of fiction to step onto the identical strip path.Some people walk continuously along this road,some because then all sorts of reasons move towards other paths in the midway.This very is actually normal,in such great change time,in such great change society,in the intellectual is engaged in one kind of professional person is very few life-long.The intellectual community all plays an important social role in the ancient and modern in China and abroad history,the Beiyang time is not certainly exceptional.The modern writer of fiction community takes new knowledge community,by host's spirit on and so on historical arena.They participated in and have led the great literary revolution,they attacked the feudal ethics and rites morals,the attack feudalism.On the other hand but they have acted the radical role in the literary revolution,when attack feudal society association feudal society's all approve is a mass of cuts and bruises.They in on critique feudal ethics and rites morals time actually blind own body because the long time feudalism was contaminated also cannot escape the more or less feudal bad habit. 

【关键词】 民初现代小说家; 社会价值; 社会交往
  民初现代小说家群体考察

内容提要 4-7
绪论 7-9
第1章 民初现代小说家群体生成的社会环境 9-15
    1.1 启蒙主义思潮召唤着现代小说家的出世 9-10
    1.2 "五四"新文化运动催生了现代小说家 10-12
    1.3 外国文学传入提高了现代小说家的文学修养 12-13
    1.4 印刷业的发展为现代小说家提供了谋生之道 13-15
第2章 民初现代小说家群体的内部结构 15-28
    2.1 富多贫少的家庭出身结构 17-19
    2.2 高学历居多的文化结构 19-21
    2.3 男多女少的性别结构 21-22
    2.4 社会中下层的生活状况 22-28
第3章 现代小说家群体的转型与分化 28-36
    3.1 小说道路的离合 28-31
    3.2 人生道路的分化 31-34
    3.3 英年早逝的俊才 34-36
第4章 民初现代小说家群体的社会交往 36-41
    4.1 与作家之间具有文人特质的交往 36-37
    4.2 与出版商之间的共赢与冲突 37-38
    4.3 与读者之间的互动关系 38-41
第5章 现代小说家群体的社会价值 41-49
    5.1 "文学革命"的先行者 41-42
    5.2 广大民众的思想启蒙者 42-44
    5.3 文化事业的巨大贡献者 44-45
    5.4 救亡运动的积极参与者 45-47
    5.5 现实生活的楷模 47-49
结语 49-50
注释 50-53
参考文献 53-57
后记 57-58
中文摘要 58-60
ABSTRACT 60-61

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