载入中....
设为首页 收藏本站 联系我们 网站地图
论文网
您现在的位置: 免费毕业论文网 >> 文化论文 >> 历史学 >> 正文
搜索: 论文

论清末立宪中官制改革的两种主张

更新时间 2009-12-8 23:35:19 点击数:

论清末立宪中官制改革的两种主张
On the Two Declaration of Bureaucracy Reformation in the Qing Dynasty Constitution
【摘要】 清末新政以官制改革为开端,是清王朝导演的一场王朝自救政治变革运动,这场政治变革,基本导向了中国政治中传统向现代的转型,标志着中国政治现代化的起点。清政府从官制改革入手,进行了一场关于中央国家机关和地方机构设置及官员任用,管理制度等一系列改革。张之洞是清末重要的地方督抚大臣,他在清廷的重要地位和影响决定了自身自然充当宪政改革的主角之一,他的主张建议无疑对清廷有重大影响。张之洞是当时中国的守旧派,“中体”体现的更为明显,固守清廷旧制,反对改革。而端方作为当时改革趋新派的代表,1905年清政府派五大臣出洋考察宪政,通过在国外的学习考察,加上从政的经验,以自己开阔的眼界,独特的视角,看到清廷经济积贫,军事积弱,以及政治制度的落后,吸取他国的政治制度方面的统治经验,“西用”在其思想中更加显著。中西思想的冲撞,到底当时的中国该怎样做?本文通过探讨二人主张的分歧与冲撞,是研究中体西用思想的一个方面,也是先进的中国人面对着国家的衰败奋起的一个体现。文章主题部分对于张之洞和端方的主张作对比,分析其对20世纪中国政治发展的影响,比较张之洞、端方二人主张的分歧的同时,总结对当代中国政治改革的历史启示有更为深刻的意义。 

【Abstract】 History into the twentieth century, the Chinese people to further deepen the crisis, the Western imperialist aggressors and the Japanese tanning, aggravated domestic conflicts, the Qing Dynasty in order to maintain its own rule, compelled by public opinion, etc, have no choice but to fight the slogan of reform to the New Deal, and Bureaucracy Reform to the beginning of reform. Bureaucracy reform from the start was to conduct a national authority on the central and local agencies and officials set up the appointment, management systems, such as a series of reforms as well as central and local governments the right to compete for a struggle.Zhang is the end of the Qing Dynasty minister viceroy important, he's an important position in the Qing Dynasty and the impact of the decision to act as their own natural, one of the leading constitutional reform, he proposed the idea will no doubt have a major impact on the Qing Dynasty. In the end of the Qing Dynasty, Zhang is a feudal bureaucrats, modern corporate giant, strategist, educator and scholar in one of many significant events of modern Chinese history and reform, have left a footprint and figure of Zhang Zhidong " , knowing lack of self-non-reform reform also, if we look at the most chancellor trip to the new political force, the WenXiang Morrow," but Zhang was China's old guard, embodied in a more Obviously, stick to the old system of the Qing court to oppose the reform. DuanFang at the time of reform become the new representative of the Qing government in 1905 to send five constitutional minister visits Abroad, through studying tours abroad, coupled with experience in politics in order to broaden their horizons and unique perspective, seeing Qing poor economy, military weakness and backwardness of the political system, to learn his country's political system, the rule of experience, after returning to four fund-raising, organization of human codification "politicians around the world", "Europe and the United States political meaning, "presented to North Korea when the ruler Abroad DuanFang as a representative of the constitutional study, more in its thinking significantly. the collision of Chinese and Western thinking, then Chinese in the end what to do? In this paper, by exploring the Second argue that the differences with the collision, is to examine the body of the West with one aspect of thinking, but also advanced countries in the face of the Chinese people rose up as a manifestation of the decline.Part of the article the theme for the idea of Zhang Zhidong and DuanFang contrast, the Central Bureaucracy, the DuanFang in "Please change the country prepared to discount the Constitutional Bureaucracy", in relation to the responsibility of the cabinet system has been put forward specific proposals, in principle, to follow the lead of the Meiji Restoration when Japan constitutional monarchy established, and others DuanFang Bureaucracy reform package put forward by the impact on the Qing Dynasty is a great one. Zhang said the negative Jingchao Bureaucracy Reformation changed once, it will lead to social disorder, and Minister of discord and strife, such as the power of a series of changes, back to the revolutionary party members to take advantage of the machine can be. ZHANG Duan real differences between the two ideas of how to reform China's purely in order to change the status quo in China, do better in life responsibilities Hill. On the separation of powers principle that DuanFang Western powers, that is, in modern times by Western countries to adjust the Qing administration, the central administration department of the authority and responsibility, can make more efficient operation of national institutions, powers and responsibilities more clearly, for future constitutional movement has laid a good start is also the basis of the organization. The principle of separation of powers and the domestic social order and stability, rule out the feudal forces of political interference, the right to avoid the phenomenon of post-secondary and reduce corruption, promote the building of local government to ensure "the independence of the judiciary" are very good. Zhang believes that the people of China did not open, it is more than the Patriot, while the destruction, and aimed at the country from chaos, too many. Ready to make trouble with the revolutionary party member, if the terms of an independent magistrate, referee in any academic impure, thoughts of misconduct on the motion DuanFang , Qing Zhang is advised to consider re-thinking of, or accelerate the clearance will be inevitable demise. Bureaucracy reform areas, the Ching court at that time put forward a two-tier approach to this end for discussion courtier. Bureaucracy Reform Program DuanFang the layer closest to the first approach, but this DuanFang Zhang put forward the views of their own to refute the point of view: on the abolition of ZhiFu, Chihli state, the controversy over Shoudao; on whether the addition of George I of the Official you on a proposed local self-government. DuanFang wrote a letter to Zhang Xinhua letter, responded to DuanFang Zhang, DuanFang beyond the expected results, DuanFang criticized the reform program.The article is the text of the final chapter of the soul, for the Qing court that the adoption of the two is what? Described in the Qing court in the promulgation of the reform program at the time, the essence, "but instructed in the post-secondary, money long-standing, and practical text to float. A view to determining the performance-hee-shu." Adopted in the actual analysis of the situation: on the responsibility of the Cabinet, requirements promulgated by the Qing Dynasty notice to retain the aircraft to the Executive Office, the pool does not have the responsibility of the Cabinet. Recommended by the Cabinet on behalf of DuanFang monarch responsible for the summary administration of a country, you can buy prime minister. Its chancellor under its terms of reference of both the professionals and are entitled without any restrictions, and no duplication of shifting responsibility for disposal, which is conducive to strengthening the centralization of power, so that the powers and responsibilities of specificity, without compromising the authority of the monarchy is still unable to move rulers of the Qing Dynasty's "heart." Zhang reform in the performance of Bureaucracy cautious, but still the Qing court in the prescribed manner or the lifting of Hu-Guang Governor's office, transferred to military aircraft, in fact deprived of the right. In this struggle, on the terms of DuanFang and Zhang are the losers. On the separation of powers, the reform of the Qing court attitude, "separation of powers" is doing to the people in form, the absorption and improve the national institutions is a new trend in this area look at the recommendations of DuanFang play a significant role. Zhang on this issue and stick to the traditional conservative dogma stubbornly refuses to let go with power, he did not want the demise of the Qing Dynasty, which is the arrival of their own demise, we can not accept the Western powers separation. He still can not believe that the people of knowledge that most people's ignorance, is not too much power and so lost his way in the direction of advance. Bureaucracy on the reform of the local: where the late Qing Dynasty, but the addition to science, reference, representations, and three Patrol Division, Dai-Ichi Kangyo 2, changed the Northeast Province, and the rest are no major changes. Inspector general as a result of local resistance, the Qing government's reform of local Bureaucracy is failed, the reform in this area, the heart to the efforts of the Qing court implemented. On this issue, DuanFang with the power station to the side of the rulers, and actively support the first reform program, and put forward many good idea, but still of order to come to fruition. Zhang Zhidong this is correct, then China's reform and do not have a good time, the nation is also different from the overseas countries, the complexity of China's national conditions. Bureaucracy reform is the late end of the Qing Dynasty in China in modern times larger, the impact of a far-reaching political reform, economic modernization is the second of the Westernization Movement, the Chinese society into the modern yet another important step. Changes in the reform and innovation of China's political system from the traditional to the modern system of government an important turning point, from the modern position of view, the reform of the system of Bureaucracy significant innovation is the early political development in China a sign. Bureaucracy constitutional reform is the end of the Qing Dynasty Qing Dynasty Dynasty directed by a self-help movement of political change, the political changes, the basic direction of China's political transformation of traditional to modern, marking the starting point of China's political modernization. Analysis of the 20th century, the impact of China's political development, comparative Zhang, DuanFang that the differences between the two at the same time, summed up the contemporary history of China's political reform and enlightenment more profound meaning . 

【关键词】 官制改革; 端方; 张之洞; 责任内阁; 三权分立
【Key words】 Bureaucracy Reformation ; DuanFang ; ZhangZhidong ; Responsible Cabinet; Separation of powers
  论清末立宪中官制改革的两种主张

内容提要 4-6
前言 6-8
第1章 官制改革的背景 8-14
    1.1 清末立宪的历史动因与条件 8-11
        1.1.1 国际形势演变的需要 8
        1.1.2 朝中大臣陈奏 8-9
        1.1.3 晚清的行政制度弊端 9-10
        1.1.4 清朝统治者内忧外患的考虑 10-11
    1.2 张之洞、端方在清廷的地位 11-14
        1.2.1 张之洞——改革中的守旧派代表 11-12
        1.2.2 端方——趋新仿西欧 12-14
第2章 张之洞、端方关于官制改革的主张分歧 14-26
    2.1 中央官制方面 14-20
        2.1.1 关于责任内阁制的设立 14-17
        2.1.2 关于三权分立原则 17-20
    2.2 地方官制改革方面 20-26
第3章 清廷对二人主张的采纳情况及几点说明 26-30
    3.1 清廷颁布改革方案 26-27
    3.2 实际采纳情况分析 27-30
        3.2.1 关于责任内阁 27
        3.2.2 关于三权分立 27-28
        3.2.3 关于地方官制的改革 28-30
结语 30-32
注释 32-38
参考文献 38-40
后记 40-41
论文摘要 41-44
ABSTRACT 44-47

返回栏目页:历史学论文

设为主页】【收藏论文】【保存论文】【打印论文】【回到顶部】【关闭此页