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重庆北部新区绿地系统景观动态分析与格局优化

更新时间 2009-9-8 14:48:28 点击数:

重庆北部新区绿地系统景观动态分析与格局优化
Analysis of Landscape Dynamics and Pattern Optimization of Green Space System in New North Zone in Chongqing
【中文摘要】 城市绿地系统具有提高空气质量,缓解热岛效应,改善城市小气候等功效,在维持和改善城市生态环境上发挥着重要的作用,是构建生态城市的重点。景观生态学原理与方法,对城市绿地系统景观格局的分析,有助于为城市绿地系统格局优化和进一步的生态规划提供科学依据。本文运用CAD、Photoshop等图象处理技术提取重庆市北部新区2001、2008年城市绿地图像资料。以北部新区的绿地系统为研究对象,应用景观生态学的原理与方法对绿地景观格局变化进行分析;并针对2008年北部新区绿地系统景观格局的问题,对绿地系统进行景观格局优化。(1)按照景观生态学的一般原理对绿地景观类型进行分类,城市绿地分为公园绿地、防护绿地、附属绿地、林地等4类。各绿地类型面积差异大,以林地面积最大,占绿地总面积的35%以上。(2)应用景观生态学中的分析方法,采用了景观多样性指数、景观均匀度指数、景观优势度指数、景观廊道密度、景观破碎化指数等有关模型,对北部新区绿地景观格局变化进行分析评价。2001—2008年,绿地总面积从1955.34hm2增加至3986.64hm2,斑块数从301块增加到392块,绿地覆盖率从15.12%提高到30.83%。从各景观指数变化可知,绿地景观多样性指数、均匀度、蔓延度在提高,而优势度则在下降,说明绿地空间分布趋于均匀化,各绿地类型比例趋于协调,斑块分布状况趋于分散化。由于北部新区在城市建设中注重对绿地的保护,绿地景观的破碎化程度在降低;绿地类型的分维数下降,绿地斑块形状趋于简单化,缺乏自然形状;绿地景观连接度和廊道密度均在增加,说明城市绿地景观之间潜在的连通性在增加。对绿地景观格局分析结果表明:北部新区2008年绿地各类型的绿地斑块组成较为合理,小型斑块(≤1hm2)占斑块总数37.30%,小中型斑块(1-5hm2)和中型斑块(5-10hm2)占斑块总数44.50%,大中型斑块(10-20hm2)和大型斑块(≥20hm2)占斑块总数18.16%。绿地斑块分维数偏低,斑块边界较规则,形状较简单。(3)通过对北部新区2008年绿地景观格局的分析和对绿地系统规划的研究,发现北部新区绿地景观空间布局存在以下问题:城市绿地面积小,数量少;公园绿地分布不均;在城市建设中过分强调道路的功能,忽视了绿化带的功能;防护绿地较少,河流、工业区和居住区之间、工业区周围等尚未建起足够的防护绿带;林地的郁闭度偏低,还没有连成片,还不能达到改善城市生态环境的要求;空间布局不够均匀,总体布局比较零散,构不成点、线、面、体的绿地系统。针对北部新区独特的用地形态,提出了城市绿地系统的布局模式——“绿环+绿核+绿廊+绿楔”。并对其进行了结构规划,概括为“一环——两楔——四带——七核”。根据绿地斑块和廊道的不同特点,分别对绿地斑块和廊道进行分项规划,提高城市绿地系统景观格局优化的可操作性。通过城市绿地景观格局优化,城市绿地质量可以得到提高。绿地面积增加,绿地斑块破碎化程度降低,连接度有所提高。经格局优化的城市绿地系统在能维护整个城市可持续性的同时,还能维持自身的稳定性。

【英文摘要】 The urban green space system improves the air quality,reduces heating island effect, purifies and preserves water reservoirs;hence it is vital for development of suitable ecological environment.The urban green space system is the key of planning on constructing the ecological city.The current status and landscape pattern of city's green space system were analyzed in order to provide the scientific basis on optimization pattern and the ecology plan of the city green space system.In this paper,CAD,Photoshop and other image-processing techniques extract 2001,2008 District of urban green space image data of Chongqing New North Zone.For the study of the green space system of New North Zone,application of landscape ecology theory and methods on changes in green space landscape pattern analysis;and for New North Zone of the landscape pattern of green space system problems in 2008,system of green space landscape pattern optimization.(1) In accordance with the general principles of landscape ecology to classify the type of green landscape,urban green space is divided into public park,green buffer,attached green space,woodland,etc.4.Differences in the type area of the green,and the largest area is woodland which is accounting more than 35%for the total green space.(2) Application of landscape ecology in the analysis,the use of the landscape diversity index,landscape evenness index,landscape dominance index,landscape corridor density, landscape fragmentation index on the model of New North Zone of green landscape pattern analysis and evaluation of changes.2001-2008,the total area of green space increased from 1955.34hm2 to 3986.64hm2, number of patches increased from 392 to 301,green coverage rate improved from 15.12%to 30.83%. According to the change of landscape index,the landscape diversity index,evenness and contagion were increasing,while the dominance was decreasing.This phenomenon demonstrates the distribution of green space is equal,the proportion of each type of green space is in the trends of harmonious and the distribution of pitches is dispersive.Due to New North Zone of the construction in a city focused on the protection of green space,the fragmentation degree was increasing,fractal dimension was decreasing,the shapes of pitches was tefiding to simplify which lack of natural shapes,the landscape cohesion and line corridor density were increasing,it shows the potential of connectedness between different green landscapes was increasing.The landscape pattern analysis of urban green space showed that:New North Zone in 2008 various types of green space component of the green patch is more reasonable,small plaque(≤1hm2) accounted for 37.30%the total number of plaques,small plaque medium(1-5hm2) and medium-sized plaque block(5-10hm2) accounted for 44.50%the total number of plaques,large and medium-sized plaques(10-20hm2) and large patches(≥20hm2) accounted for 18.16%the total number of plaques.The fractal dimension of green patch is low,the patch border is comparison rule,and the shape is relatively simple.(3) The analysis of landscape pattern on the green space system planning and research in 2008 about New North Zone,found that the landscape space layout in the green space of the New North Zone of the following questions:the small size and a small number of urban green space;Unequal distribution of public park;In urban construction too much emphasizing on the function of the road and the neglecting of the function of green belts;Lacking of green buffer, between rivers,industrial areas and residential areas,around industrial areas,yet has not been built adequate protection green belt;woodland canopy density is low,there is no connection into a film,it can not achieve the improvement of the urban ecological environment;Lacking of uniform spatial distribution,the overall layout of sporadic,do not constitute point,line,surface, body of the green space system.The unique shape of the land of New North Zone,made the layout of urban green space system model——"green rings + green nuclease+ green galleries + green wedges".And structural planning,summarized as "one ring——two wedges——four belts——seven nuclease". In accordance with the different characteristics of green patches and corridors,planning the green patches and corridors respectively to improve urban green space landscape pattern optimization system operational.Through the optimization of urban green space landscape pattern,the quality of urban green space can be improved.Green area has increased,the degree of fragmentation of green patches has reduced,Landscape connectivity index has increased.The urban green space system is able to maintain the sustainability of the entire city,but also to maintain the stability.

【中文关键词】 城市绿地; 景观格局; 动态变化; 格局优化
【英文关键词】 Urban green space; Landscape pattern; Dynamics change; Pattern optimization
论文目录】
摘要 6-8
ABSTRACT 8-9
第1章 文献综述 10-22
    1.1 城市绿地及绿地系统 10-13
    1.2 景观生态学在城市绿地研究中的应用 13-16
    1.3 城市绿地景观生态研究现状 16-20
    1.4 格局优化理论 20-22
第2章 引言 22-24
第3章 研究方法 24-34
    3.1 研究区域概况 24-26
    3.2 研究方法与内容 26-34
第4章 城市绿地景观格局动态分析 34-42
    4.1 绿地景观构成及变化分析 34-35
    4.2 绿地景观多样性 35-36
    4.3 绿地景观破碎度 36
    4.4 绿地景观廊道密度 36-37
    4.5 绿地景观最小距离指数 37
    4.6 绿地景观连接度 37
    4.7 绿地景观分维数 37-38
    4.8 绿地景观蔓延度 38
    4.9 绿地景观分离度 38-39
    4.10 绿地斑块类型特征 39-42
第5章 城市绿地景观格局优化探讨 42-56
    5.1 绿地现状及现有规划中存在的问题 42-43
    5.2 绿地景观格局优化的有利条件 43-44
    5.3 景观格局优化目标 44
    5.4 绿地景观格局优化指标 44-45
    5.5 景观格局优化原则 45-46
    5.6 绿地景观格局优化措施 46-52
    5.7 格局优化的分析评价 52-56
第6章 结论与讨论 56-58
    6.1 结论 56-57
    6.2 讨论 57-58
参考文献 58-64
致谢 64-66
发表论文及参加课题 66

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