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中国鮨科鱼类系统发育的线粒体细胞色素b基因全序列分析

更新时间 2009-9-8 14:20:40 点击数:

中国鮨科鱼类系统发育的线粒体细胞色素b基因全序列分析
Molecular Phylogeny of Serranidae of China with Complete Cytochrome b Sequences
【中文摘要】 鮨科隶属鲈形目鲈亚目,是鲈亚目中物种最多的科之一,主要分布于热带至温带。鮨科及其近缘类群如石斑鱼类、鳜类、花鲈等具有较高的经济价值,是重要的水产养殖对象:鮨亚科和花鮨亚科中的部分种类是著名的观赏鱼;多种鮨科鱼类被《濒危物种红皮书》收录,亟待保护。鮨科鱼类属于低等鲈形目,是研究鲈形目鱼类系统发育的关键类群,也是学者们研究的热点和难点。最初学者们根据传统的形态、生理、骨骼等特征,在进行鲈形目鱼类分类时,将分类地位不明确的鱼类都放入鮨科;此后鮨科的范畴及其系统位置有多次变动。由于鮨科鱼类种属较多,特殊的生活环境造成其形态的特化,而相近的生活习性导致形态上的趋同;鮨科鱼类地理分布广泛,样品不易收集,开展鮨科鱼类系统发育研究非常困难。分子系统学的发展为鮨科鱼类的系统发育研究提供了新的方法,由于不同的研究材料和研究方法得到的结果不尽相同,且中国鮨科鱼类系统发育尚未有系统报道。为此,本研究测定了中国鮨科鱼类及相关类群线粒体细胞色素b基因全序列38个,结合Genbank中相关类群序列,共分析了84个细胞色素b基因全序列;用临近归并法、最大似然法、最大简约法、最大进化法构建分子系统树,发现传统的鮨科鱼类都不是单系。具体结果如下:1、鮨科鮨亚科和石斑鱼亚科并没有聚在一起,二者间的平均遗传距离较远。2、鮨科石斑鱼亚科中的东洋鲈属、线纹鱼属并未与石斑鱼属聚为一支,不支持石斑鱼亚科单系性的假说。东洋鲈族与鲈科鱼类关系较密切,线纹鱼族以较低的支持率与暖鲈科聚类,而黄鲈属则聚在石斑鱼族内。3、驼背鲈、宽额鲈、白线光腭鲈、喙鲈网结于石斑鱼属中。4、鳜类未与鮨科中的石斑鱼亚科和鮨亚科聚类;支持将鳜类从箱科中划出,但是鳜类的分类地位有待进一步研究。5、花鲈属鱼类系统位置较为孤立,或支持成立花鲈科。为了更好地研究能科鱼类的系统发育,需要采用更多的分子标记分析更多的类群。

【英文摘要】 The Family Serranidae and it's allies belong to Perciformes:Percoidei,they usually inhabit in tropical or subtropical waters all over the world.Serranidae is one of the families which have richest species-diversity in Percoidei.Fishes in Sinipercine,groupers and Lateolabrax are of high economic value and are important subjects of aquaculture.Some fishes in Serraninae and Anthiinae are famous ornamental pets.Many fishes in Serranidae are listed in IUCN,waiting for protection.Serranidae are basal percoid fishes,they are key taxa in phylogenetic analyses of Perciformes,taxonomic and phylogenetic researches of this group are difficult and have long been subjects of entensive researches.Primarily Serranidae were composed of fishes whose phylogenetic positions could not umambigously assigned in percoid family based on morologieal, physiological and osteological characters.The range and phylogenetic placement of Serranidae in Perciodei had been changed many times.As there are so many genus and species in Serranidae, specific habitat could have leded to morphological specification,and similar ecological preference could have caused morphologicl convergence;and worldwide distribution of serranid fishes prevent the collection of enough representative samples;few extensive phylogenetic survey on serranidae had been conducted.The development of molecular phylogeny sheds new light in serranid phylogeny.However due to the lacking of suitable samples or poor genetic signals in shorter sequences,several molecular phylogeny of serranid fishes resulted in various relationships,and no extensive phylogenetic analysis have been conducted on Serranidae in China.In the present study,38 complete sequences of mtDNA cytochrome b gene(cytb) from samples of serrenidae and their allies were determined,combined with related homologous sequences downloaded from GenBank,84 complete cytb sequences were used to build phylogenetic trees by Neighbour-Joining method,Minimum Evolution method,Maximum Likelihood method, Maximum Parsimony method.Various traditional serranidae were found no support in phylogenetic trees.Phylogenetic results were as follows:1 Serraninae and Epinephelinae didn't appear in the same clade,and average distance between them were large.2 Niphon,Diplorion and Grammistes didn't clustered with Epinephelus,which didn't support the monophyly of subfamily Epinephelinae.Niphon were close to Percinae,Grammistes were weakly clustered with Percichthyidae,and Diplorion was in the clade of Epinephelini.3 Cromileptes,Promicrops,Anyperodon and Mycteroperca were nested in Epinephelus clade.4 Sinipercine fishes didn't cluster with Epinephini or Serraninae in Serranidae,which support the excluding Sinipercine from Serranidae,but phylogenetic placement of Sinipercine within perciod was not clear.5 Lateolabrax were phylogenetically isolated,which may support the promotion to the family Lateolabracidae.To better resolve phylogenetic relationships of the family,more molecular markers should be used and more samples of serranid fishes and their allies be analyzed.

【中文关键词】 鮨科; 系统发育; 线粒体Cytb
【英文关键词】 Serranidae; Phylogeny; mitochondrial Cytochrome b
摘要 4-5
Abstract 5-6
目录 7-9
第一章 前言 9-26
    1.1 研究背景 9-10
    1.2 鮨科及近源鱼类分类简史 10-16
        1.2.1 鮨科范畴 10-11
        1.2.2 石斑鱼亚科 11-13
        1.2.3 鳜类 13-14
        1.2.4 花鲈属 14-16
    1.3 系统发育学 16-19
        1.3.1 系统发育学相关概念 16-17
        1.3.2 系统发育学常用研究手段 17-18
        1.3.3 系统发育推断方法 18-19
    1.4 系统发育常用分子标记 19-23
        1.4.1 蛋白质标记 19-20
        1.4.2 DNA分子标记 20-23
    1.5 鱼类线粒体标记 23-25
        1.5.1 鱼类线粒体结构特征 23-24
        1.5.2 线粒体细胞色素b基因特征 24-25
    1.6 本研究的目的和意义 25-26
第二章 材料和方法 26-34
    2.1 材料 26-31
        2.1.1 实验材料 26-29
        2.1.2 实验仪器和主要试剂 29-31
    2.2 实验方法 31-34
        2.2.1 基因组总DNA的提取 31
        2.2.2 DNA的检测 31-32
        2.2.3 PCR扩增 32-33
        2.2.4 PCR产物检测 33
        2.2.5 PCR产物测序 33
        2.2.6 数据分析方法 33-34
第三章 结果和讨论 34-54
    3.1 结果 34-48
        3.1.1 序列组成分析 34
        3.1.2 遗传距离 34-36
        3.1.3 系统发育树 36-44
        3.1.4 相关科、属间关系分析 44-48
    3.2 讨论 48-53
        3.2.1 关于外类群的选择和分子系统树构建方法 48
        3.2.2 关于转换颠换比值 48-49
        3.2.3 关于鮨科系统位置和鮨科构成问题 49-50
        3.2.4 石斑鱼亚科 50-51
        3.2.5 鳜类 51-52
        3.2.6 花鲈 52-53
    3.3 小结 53-54
附表 54-63
参考文献 63-70
在读期间发表的论文 70-71
致谢 71

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