载入中....
设为首页 收藏本站 联系我们 网站地图
论文网
您现在的位置: 免费毕业论文网 >> 理学论文 >> 理学相关 >> 正文
搜索: 论文

海上溢油风化过程中油指纹变化规律

更新时间 2009-9-7 10:53:45 点击数:

海上溢油风化过程中油指纹变化规律
Fingerprints Changing Rule of Oil Spilled in the Weathering Process at Sea

【中文摘要】 石油作为现代社会的主要能源,对其需求量逐年增加,伴随着海上石油勘探规模和海上石油运输量增长,溢油事故频繁发生,严重污染和危害海洋生态及沿岸环境。以油指纹鉴别作为溢油鉴别中的重要技术手段,通过利用不同检测技术获取原油中各种化合物的不同信息。基于油品指纹会受到风化作用,主要包括挥发、溶解、分散、乳化、光化学氧化、微生物降解和吸附沉降等影响而发生不同程度的变化,通过对溢油和可疑溢油源油样的“油指纹”进行对比,从而实现溢油源的排查和确认,为事故调查、制定应急措施、确定责任归属及赔偿等方面提供科学依据。本文通过模拟不同原油在室内和室外的夏、冬两季的风化实验,运用荧光光谱法,对未风化油品和不同风化时间的油品(科威特原油和沙特阿拉伯轻质原油)进行谱图对比分析,鉴别两种相似油种,在不考虑生物降解、风速以及海浪等因素的影响,找出油指纹随风化影响因素(温度、紫外线光照强度)的变化规律。本文研究结果表明:(1)通过选用同步荧光光谱法,再结合同步荧光谱图上主峰的相对强度和峰强度比率共同进行鉴别两种相似油种。在风化过程中,无论是模拟室内夏、冬季风化还是模拟室外风化时,两种原油特征峰所对应的荧光强度随着风化时间的延长,而逐渐减小,不同风化环境条件下,减小的幅度不同。(2)通过对比模拟两种原油室内、外冬季风化实验,当Ex=270nm时,在特征峰位378nm,随着风化时间延长,荧光强度逐渐减小,在风化间隔天数相同的条件下,特征峰378nm所对应的荧光强度,室外风化荧光强度总大于室内。冬季风化时,紫外线光照强度对风化过程影响较小,低温环境下,蒸发速率减慢,溢油的风化速度会显著地减小。(3)通过对比模拟两种原油室内、外夏季风化实验,当Ex=270nm时,在特征峰位378nm,随着风化时间延长,荧光强度逐渐减小,在风化间隔天数相同的条件下,特征峰378nm所对应的荧光强度,室外风化荧光强度总小于室内。夏季风化时,高辐射强度的紫外线光照和高温加快溢油蒸发速率,有利于风化进行。

【英文摘要】 Oil is the major source of energy in modern society,demands for which have increased year by year.With the scale of oil exploration and oil transportation volume on the sea growing,oil spills which could seriously contaminate and harm the marine ecosystem and coastal environment frequently happen.Identification of oil spill fingerprint is an important technical means,through the use of different detective techniques,to obtain the different information of various compounds in crude oil, Fingerprints will be based on oil spill weathering,including evaporation,dissolution, dispersion,emulsification,photochemical oxidation,microbial degradation and adsorption factors which could lead to various degrees of changes.Comparing the "oil fingerprinting" between the suspicious and the source of oil spills could achieve investigation and confirmation of the source of the oil spill,and provide a scientific basis and theory for accident investigation,the development of contingency measures and determination the responsibilities and compensations.In this paper,by simulating different indoor and outdoor experiments of the crude oils in the different weathering environment of summer and winter,and using fluorescence spectrometry,Comparison and analysis of spectra from oils of unweathered and at different weathering times are experimentalized(crude oils from Kuwait and Saudi- Arabia,which are both light crude oils),which could identify the two similar oil species,without taking into account the biological degradation,wind speed,as well as factors such as the role of the waves,and the impact of factors (temperature,UV light intensity),then how the fingerprints will be changed in the law have been found.Results of the research thesis show as follows:(1) By matching of synchronous scanning spectroscopy,combined with the relative intensity of the main peak and the ratio of peak intensity of to identify similar types of oils.In the weathering process,whether simulated in summer and winter indoor or outdoor,carried out in the weathering,the two characteristic peaks corresponding to crude oils fluorescence intensity gradually reduces.In the different weathering conditions,reducing is at different rate. (2) By matching two types of crude oils simulated winter in indoor and outdoor weathering experiment,it is received that when the Ex=270nm,the peak in the characteristics of 378nm,carried out with the weathering process,fluorescence intensity gradually decreases,the number of days in the interval of weathering under the same condition,the characteristic peaks 378nm corresponding to the fluorescence intensity, the total fluorescence intensity of weathering outdoor is greater than that of the indoor. Weathering in winter,the UV light intensity has small impact on the weathering process, in the low-temperature environment,weathering slows down,in ice water,owing to the role of oil spills or coagulation sedimentation,weathering rate of oil spills significantly reduce or completely stop.(3) By matching the two types of crude oil simulated in summer of indoor and outdoor weathering experiment,it is concluded that when the Ex=270nm,the peak in the characteristics of 378nm,carried out the weathering process,fluorescence intensity gradually decreases,the number of days in the interval of weathering under the same condition,the characteristic peaks 378nm corresponding to the fluorescence intensity, the total fluorescence intensity of weathering outdoor is less than that of indoor. Weathering in summer,the UV light intensity and high temperature speed up the evaporation rate of oil,which is beneficial to weathering.

【中文关键词】 油指纹; 鉴别; 荧光; 风化; 模拟
【英文关键词】 Oil Fingerprint; Identification; Fluorescence Spectroscopy; Weathering; Simulation
论文目录】
摘要 5-6
ABSTRACT 6-7
第1章 绪论 10-35
    1.1 溢油污染现状及危害 10-15
        1.1.1 海上溢油污染现状 10-13
        1.1.2 油污染对海洋环境的危害 13-15
    1.2 石油基本化学组成及性质 15-19
        1.2.1 石油的基本化学组成 15-17
        1.2.2 石油的物理性质 17-19
    1.3 原油的荧光光谱特征 19-21
    1.4 溢油风化过程 21-26
    1.5 油指纹鉴别的现状及意义 26-32
        1.5.1 国内外研究现状 26-28
        1.5.2 油指纹分析技术及其进展 28-32
    1.6 油指纹鉴别的研究意义 32-35
        1.6.1 海上溢油相关国际公约 32-33
        1.6.2 油指纹鉴别的意义 33-35
第2章 荧光图谱指纹鉴定分析 35-79
    2.1 仪器设备与制剂 35
    2.2 分析方法 35-40
        2.2.1 仪器测定条件 35-36
        2.2.2 实验装置 36-38
        2.2.3 实验油样及样品制备 38-39
        2.2.4 样品测定 39-40
        2.2.5 实验数据处理 40
        2.2.6 溢油鉴别—谱图配比法 40
    2.3 实验结果分析 40-77
        2.3.1 模拟室内夏季风化实验 40-50
        2.3.2 模拟室内冬季风化实验 50-58
        2.3.3 模拟室外夏季风化实验 58-64
        2.3.4 模拟室外冬季风化实验 64-71
        2.3.5 对比模拟室内、室外冬季风化实验 71-74
        2.3.6 对比模拟室内、室外夏季风化实验 74-77
    2.4 本章小结 77-79
第3章 结论和展望 79-81
    3.1 结论 79-80
    3.2 展望 80-81
参考文献 81-86
附录 86-92
致谢 92

返回栏目页:理学相关论文

设为主页】【收藏论文】【保存论文】【打印论文】【回到顶部】【关闭此页