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三坐标划线机控制系统设计

更新时间 2009-9-17 13:19:03 点击数:

三坐标划线机控制系统设计
The Control System Design of 3-Coordinate Automatic Scribing Machine
【中文摘要】 在机械加工过程中,经常需要对工件进行钳工划线,以确定加工位置、进行钳工检查。划线时,通常使用游标卡尺、钳工划线盘、钢直尺等常用工具。此工序的精度将直接影响零件的加工精度。当零件尺寸较大、外形复杂时,划线精度低、效率低、操作者的劳动强度较大。研究合适的划线工艺装备是非常必要的。随着计算机技术及数控技术的发展,CNC(computer numeric control)型控制系统变得日益普及,因此,设计数控型三坐标划线机取代人工划线将有助于提高生产效率,提高产品质量,代替传统的手工划线与测量作业,只需一次或两次装卡便可完成对工件的测量与划线。以研究中大型三坐标划线机为契机,着重解决工程中的问题,为研究制造精度更高的生产型测量机打下坚实的基础是很有必要的。课题研究就是针对划线机的性能要求,分析其工作原理、软件功能、传动系统和控制系统等,设计选用控制器及步进电机等周边设备,从而实现划线机运动控制的功能。本文首先分析划线机的工作原理与运动控制要求,采用机电一体化系统设计思想,对其整体造型、机械结构和控制系统进行了设计,选择了适合划线机的机械结构,设计了检测碰撞的划线头机构,在此基础上对划线机运动控.制实现的关键技术进行深入的比较和剖析,选择了最合适的方案并给出了详细的说明,形成了设计方案。以可编程控制器(PLC)为控制核心,集中完成三轴联动控制信号和触摸屏串口通信信号的收发,在进行系统与外围设备配置时留有余地,以便进行二次开发。主控系统采用根据运动控制要求按程序进行集中运算处理,配以运动控制器、驱动器、步进电机等周边设备,实现了对三台步进电机驱动器输出逻辑控制,实现划线机运动控制的功能。为了提高控制精度,采用高精度的滚动丝杠,并利用编码器、运动控制器、驱动器形成闭环控制回路,实现三个坐标X、Y、Z的微量进给,并可实现数字调速。采用具有多个数据接口的专用运动控制器实现直线、圆弧插补,保证了系统工作的平稳性,提高划线机三坐标轴控制精度,增强划线机的适应性,并为下一步实现测量和数据处理做技术准备。控制系统采用触摸屏作人机界面,使用触摸屏组态软件设计出系统的操作和显示界面,实现了各种参数的设定和控制信息的动态显示,提高了系统的人机交互能力。最后对本课题工作进行了总结,并对三坐标划线机的应用和改进研究进行了展望。 

【英文摘要】 In the machining process, often need a bench worker use scriber mark lines on the work piece to determine the processing location and inspection. It normally used vernier caliper, fitter disc, steel ruler, and other frequently used tools. The accuracy of this process will be directly affected parts machining accuracy. When parts are larger, have complex shape, the worker requires a higher degree of knowledge drawing capability. It is easily to result in low precision, low efficiency, greater labor intensity. What’s more, high quality and automation have become its inexorable developing trend.With the development of CNC technology and motor drive system, CNC (computer numeric control) control system has become increasingly popular. To design 3D CNC machine replace the manual operate will help improve production efficiency and improve product’s quality. NC-ASM(Automatic Scribing Machine)can be controlled by the main computer and PLC or joint control three coordinate axis automatic feed, .automatic mark lines, but also to be completed cutting action.Take the studies of the large-scale NC-ASM as the turning point, solves the project problem emphatically, builds the solid foundation for the research of manufacture the higher precision measuring machine is necessity.The topic research is aims at the NC-ASM performance requirement, analyzes its work principle, the software function, the transmission system, the control system and so on. The design selects the peripheral equipment, like the controller, the servo electrical machinery and so on .Thus the realization scriber movement control function, reduces the labor intensity greatly, enhances the production efficiency and the industry product quality.This paper first analyzes the NC-ASM work principle and the movement control request, uses the integration of machinery system design methods, designed its overall modelling, the mechanism and the control system, chose the structure suited the scriber mechanism, designed examination and prevent collision structure, carried on the thorough comparison and the analysis in this foundation to the scriber movement control realization key technologies, has chosen the most appropriate plan and has given the detailed explanation, has formed the design proposal.Use programmable logic controller (PLC) as the core to send or receive the three-axis control signal and touch screen communication signal. Control system in accordance with the requirements of motion control based on centralized processing procedures, together with the motion controller, drives, servo motors and other peripheral equipment, has realized the three stepper motors output logic control, achieved the motion control functions. In order to improve the control accuracy, use high-precision rolling screw, encoders, and motion controller, to form closed-loop control circuit, realized the three coordinates(X, Y, Z) micro-feed and digital speed control. The use of multiple data interface dedicated motion controller to achieve line interpolation, circular interpolation, and ensure the system working smoothly, improve control precision and enhance the machine adaptability. Control system use touch screen as Human Machine Interface, designed operate and display interface, to achieve a variety of settings and control parameters dynamic display, enhance the system human-computer interaction capacity.Finally has carried on the summary, forecast three coordinate’s scriber machine application and the improvement research. 

【中文关键词】 控制系统; 运动控制; 步进电机; PLC; 三坐标; 划线机
【英文关键词】 Control system ; the movement control; Stepping Moter; PLC; Three coordinates; the scriber machine
毕业论文目录】
摘要 4-5
Abstract 5-6
1 引言 9-10
2 概述 10-15
    2.1 课题背景及意义 10
    2.2 国外研究的现状 10-12
    2.3 国内研究的现状 12-13
    2.4 主要研究内容 13-15
3 划线机机械结构设计 15-23
    3.1 机械系统设计方案 15-16
    3.2 执行机构设计 16-21
        3.2.1 X 轴进给机构 17-18
        3.2.2 Y 轴进给机构 18-19
        3.2.3 Z 轴进给机构 19
        3.2.4 进给系统主要设计计算 19-21
    3.3 划线头机构 21
    3.4 安全保护、防护部件 21-23
4 划线机控制系统硬件设计 23-46
    4.1 控制系统总体方案 23-24
    4.2 控制系统方案的讨论 24-26
    4.3 PLC 技术概述 26-30
        4.3.1 可编程序控制器的基本结构 26-28
        4.3.2 PLC 的基本控制过程 28-29
        4.3.3 PLC 选型 29-30
    4.4 运动控制器及其使用 30-36
        4.4.1 性能指标 30-31
        4.4.2 接线说明 31-33
        4.4.3 串行口控制命令说明 33-36
        4.4.4 控制器与上位机通讯方式设置 36
    4.5 步进电机及细分驱动器接口电路 36-40
        4.5.1 步进电机的工作原理及特点 36-37
        4.5.2 步进电机的选用 37-39
        4.5.3 步进电机驱动器及拨位开关的设定 39-40
    4.6 旋转编码器的选择 40-41
        4.6.1 旋转编码器简介 40-41
        4.6.2 旋转编码器的使用 41
    4.7 人机交互界面设计 41-46
        4.7.1 触摸屏人机界面特点 42
        4.7.2 触摸屏选型及性能分析 42-44
        4.7.3 PLC 与MT506L 触摸屏通信 44-45
        4.7.4 触摸屏菜单结构 45-46
5 划线机控制系统软件设计 46-50
    5.1 系统主控程序设计 46-47
    5.2 软件功能设计 47-48
    5.3 触摸屏界面设计 48-50
6 结论 50-51
参考文献 51-54
在读期间发表的学术论文 54-55
作者简介 55-56
致谢 56

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