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百花湖富营养化调查及沉积物磷形态研究

更新时间 2009-10-25 17:04:46 点击数:

百花湖富营养化调查及沉积物磷形态研究
Eutrophication Investigation of Baihua Lake and Study on the Phosphorus Forms in Sediments
【中文摘要】 水体的富营养化是当今湖泊、水库面对的一大生态环境问题。随着社会经济的发展,很多湖泊都受到了污染,特别是氮、磷等营养物质引起的富营养化。百花湖为贵阳市三大饮用水水源地之一,同时该湖泊位于长江上游,该湖泊的污染状况与长江水域的生态系统存在一定的关系。由于在经济建设过程中的环境整治不够,百花湖的水质出现了较为严重的污染现象,极大地损害了这一区域的环境质量,影响了周边人民的工作和生活,也制约了该区域的可持续发展。无论从社会发展还是经济发展,实施百花湖综合治理都有重要的意义。本研究基于对2008年3月所采集样品(10个采样点三个层面)的实验分析与数据总结,对百花湖的富营养化现状进行了研究,指出了当前百花湖富营养化的限制因子;对沉积物中磷的化学形态进行分析研究,指出了磷形态的分布规律;同时针对目前富营养化现状,提出合理性治理措施。本研究得出如下结论:1.百花湖富养化的主要原因是人类活动造成的营养物质输入。经分析发现,营养物质的来源有城乡生活污水和工业废水、水产养殖业、农业面源污染、沉积物中氮和磷的释放等。其中以外源为主,甚至为最重要的污染源。2.百花湖水体表层溶解氧较高,从表层到底层逐渐减少;水体偏碱性,pH范围为7.53~8.60;总氮含量和总磷含量较高,水体氮磷比为15.4~84.5,大于10,磷为富营养化的限制性因素。3.湖泊沉积物中总磷、总氮含量较高,总磷含量为685~2300mg/kg,总氮729~2516 mg/kg,水平方向上分布存在差异,在垂直方向逐渐递减。4.沉积物磷的各种形态中,有机磷含量占全磷的左右37.3—52.1%。无机磷以钙磷含量最高,其次为闭蓄态磷,紧接着为铁结合态磷,铝结合态磷和可溶态磷含量很少。综合以上几个方面的分析,百花湖已处于富营养化状态,应引起足够的重视。本文结合百花湖实际情况,建议百花湖富营养化的防治应重视以下几方面:1、控制外源性营养盐类进入;2、控制内源营养物质的释放;3、建立一个良好的水生态系统;4、做好百花湖及周边环境管理

【英文摘要】 Nowadays,eutrophication is one of the ecological problems in lakes and reservoirs.With the development of economy,many lakes were polluted,especially water eutrophication caused by nitrogen and phosphorus.Baihua Lake is one of the three major drinking water resources of Guiyang,which is the capital of Guizhou Province.Baihua Lake is located on the upstream of Yangtze River,so condition of lake pollution has some relationship with ecological system of Yangtze River. The environment deterioration,during the process of economic development,does not draw enough attention,so this lake has been deadly polluted.This has greatly damaged the environment quality of this area and influenced the working and living of peripheral population,and restricted the sustainable development in this area as well.Implementing lake water environment ecology controlling projects thus becomes significant for the social and economic development.This study,based on the experiments and data analysis of 10 core sediment sample(from three layers) taken in March,2008,carries out research on current water eutrophication and analyzed the limitative factor of current Baihua Lake eutrophication and proposes the rational disposal measures according to the present condition of eutrophication.This thesis draws the following conclusions:1.The main reason for the eutrophication in Baihua Lake was due to the input of nutrient materials caused by human beings.The analysis shows the sources of nutrient were from urban and rural sewerage and industry sewerage,the fertilizer losing from farmland,the release of N and P from the sediment.Above all,the external pollution which contains phosphorus and nitrogen was an major factor,even the most important.2.The dissolved oxygen in surface water is high,and become lower from surface to the bottom.The water in the lake was alkaline,and the range of pH is 7.53~8.60.The concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen are high,and they are 0.01~0.28 mg/L and 0.72~3.38 mg/L,respectively.The ratio of total nitrogen and total phosphorus is 15.4~84.5,which is bigger than 10,so that the phosphorus is the limitative factor.3.The concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen in sediments are high,and they are 685~2300 mg/kg and 729~2516 mg/kg,respectively.The concentrations of TP and TN were different in sites and depths;vertically,the deeper the depth was,the higher concentrations of TP and TN.4.Organic phosphorus is the highest in all forms of phosphorus, about 37.3-52.1%of TP.The highest concentration of inorganic phosphorus is Ca-P,the second is O-P,the third is Fe-P,and the concentrations of Al-P and DP remain low.From the above factors,we come to the conclusion that the lake was already at a eutrophic state,which should attract much attention. Combined with the present condition of Baihua Lake,the author of this thesis proposes several suggestions:1.Controlling the entering of nutrients;2.Controlling the release of endogenous nutrition material;3. Setting up a good aquatic ecosystem;4.Protecting the surrounding environment of the lake. 

【中文关键词】 高原湖泊; 沉积物; 富营养化; 限制性因子; 磷的形态
【英文关键词】 Plateau Lake; Sediments; Eutrophication; limitative factor; Phosphorus forms
  百花湖富营养化调查及沉积物磷形态研究

摘要 4-6
ABSTRACT 6-8
第一章 前言 9-11
    1.1 本文研究的背景和选题思路 9
    1.2 研究的意义 9-10
    1.3 研究的主要内容 10-11
第二章综述 11-18
    2.1 湖泊富营养化概述 11-15
    2.2 我国湖泊富营养化现状 15-16
    2.3 沉积物中磷的形态研究意义及研究进展 16-18
第三章 研究区域基本特征及其研究现状 18-25
    3.1 百花湖的自然环境 18-19
    3.2 社会经济概况 19-20
    3.3 百花湖水质概况 20-21
    3.4 研究区域富营养化状况 21-22
    3.5 样品的采集及处理 22-25
第四章 百花湖沉积物和水体的理化性质 25-35
    4.1 测定方法 25-27
    4.2 结果与讨论 27-31
    4.3 百花湖水环境变迁 31-34
    4.4 富营养化原因分析 34-35
第五章 百花湖沉积物中磷的赋存形态及分布特征 35-49
    5.1 沉积物磷形态的分级提取 35-37
    5.2 实验结果与讨论 37-49
第六章 百花湖水环境防治建议 49-53
    6.1 外源性营养物质的控制 49-50
    6.2 内源性营养物质的控制 50-51
    6.3 水环境管理措施 51-53
第七章 结语 53-55
    7.1 结论 53
    7.2 本文进一步研究的建议 53-55
参考文献 55-61
致谢 61-62
硕士学习期间发表论文 62

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