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宪政视野中的刑事被告人强制取证权研究

更新时间 2009-12-8 23:34:00 点击数:

宪政视野中的刑事被告人强制取证权研究
Research on the Criminal Defendant's Constitutional Right to Compulsory Process for Obtaining Witnesses in His Favor
【摘要】 强制取证权起源于英国16世纪中期。历史发展至今,许多西方国家都把刑事被告人的强制取证权作为保护被告人权利、实现控辩平等的一项重要内容明确而细致的规定刑事诉讼法中甚至宪法之中,作为一项宪法性权利予以保护。刑事被告人强制取证权在西方宪政国家之所以能够成为一项宪法性权利并得到有效的运用,主要源于其本身所具有的深厚的理论基础,即宪政理论和程序正义理论。将被告方的强制取证权规定在宪法中来加以保护的做法不仅体现出刑事诉讼程序与宪政的重要关系,还表现了强制取证权本身对于刑事诉讼过程中程序正义的实现所起的关键作用,强制取证权对于认定刑事被告人有罪与否以及罪轻罪重的审判阶段控与辩两方能否展开“理性的对话”具有深远意义。正是由于被告人的强制取证权是被告人在刑事诉讼过程中人权的保护的重要内容,并且能够在一定程度上促进审判过程的公正,许多国际条约都将其作为被告人所应当享有的最低限度的程序权利而进行了规定。这些专门保护刑事被告人强制取证权的规定,有利于实现刑事诉讼中控制犯罪、保障人权以及提高诉讼效率这三个方面的价值目标。中国现行的刑事诉讼法赋予控辩双方的调查取证权利有很大差别,对刑事被告人取证的权利限制很多,这与抗辩式的庭审方式不相适应,控辩双方的诉讼地位极不平等。虽然通过司法解释或相关法律的修改,刑事被告人的取证权利也得到了一定程度的改善,但是仍然存在很多问题。中国完善刑事被告人的强制取证权,不仅要将刑事被告人的强制取证权纳入宪法,更重要的是建立相关的权利救济机制。同时,除了赋予其宪法权利的地位,还要借鉴西方国家的先进经验,设计该权利在刑事诉讼中实现的程序和救济体系,将该权利落在实处。 

【Abstract】 The compulsory process originated from England in 1600's. Many western countries has written the compulsory process as an important content into Criminal procedure law, even Constitution, to protect the criminal defendant's rights. The reason why the compulsory process can be treated as an constitutional right, and which has been well used in those constitutional countries, mainly because of the deep theoretical foundation itself which are constitutionalism and due process. Regulating the compulsory process of criminal defendant in constitution , not only shows the importance connections between constitution and criminal law, but also embodies the compulsory process itself taking a key effect on criminal law . Being an important part in due process, the compulsory process is meaningful in trial stage, which would give the result of the trial and take the accuser and the defender having an rational "talk". Just because the compulsory process plays a such important role on protecting the defendant's right, and it also can promote the equitable of justice, many international treaties had regulated it as a basic procedure right. These regulations about the compulsory process have great benefit on controlling crimes, protecting human rights and improving lawsuit efficiency. The compulsory process in PRC has a great gap between the accuser and the defendant, which has a great many limitations to the defendant. These limitations make the accuser had a higher situation in trail. Though the situation has changed by the laws modified, and the defendants has got some rights, it still has many problems. To improve the defendant's compulsory process in PRC, we not only have to write it into constitution, but also, and more important, to establish interrelated right relief mechanism. At the same time, we also have to learn the advanced experiences from western countries, design a system of compulsory process in Criminal Procedure Law and use it. 

【关键词】 被告人; 强制取证; 宪政; 程序基本权; 完善
【Key words】 Defendant; the Compulsory Process; Constitutionalism; Basic procedure right; Improve
  宪政视野中的刑事被告人强制取证权研究

摘要 4-6
Abstract 6-7
引言 9-10
一、刑事诉讼中被告人强制取证权概述 10-17
    (一) 刑事被告人强制取证权的性质 10-11
    (二) 刑事被告人强制取证权的主要内容 11
    (三) 刑事被告人强制取证权的起源和发展 11-12
    (四) 刑事被告人强制取证权的基本价值 12-14
    (五) 刑事被告人强制取证权与相关权利的比较 14-17
二、刑事被告人强制取证权的理论基础 17-23
    (一) 宪政权利理论的基本要求 17-19
    (二) 程序正义理论的基本要求 19-23
三、刑事被告人强制取证权的比较研究 23-30
    (一) 英美法系国家刑事被告人的强制取证权 23-25
    (二) 大陆法系国家刑事被告人的强制取证权 25-27
    (三) 日本有关刑事被告人强制取证权的规定 27-28
    (四) 国际条约中的刑事被告人强制取证权 28-30
四、中国刑事被告人强制取证权实证考察 30-34
    (一) 中国刑事被告人强制取证权的具体规定 30-31
    (二) 中国刑事被告人强制取证权存在的问题 31-34
五、完善中国刑事被告人强制取证权的理论构想 34-40
    (一) 确立强制取证权为刑事被告人的宪法权利 34-35
    (二) 完善刑事被告人强制取证权的诉讼机制 35-40
结语 40-41
注释 41-46
参考文献 46-50
致谢 50

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