载入中....
设为首页 收藏本站 联系我们 网站地图
论文网
您现在的位置: 免费毕业论文网 >> 法学论文 >> 商法论文 >> 正文
搜索: 论文

形象权的创设及其民法保护

更新时间 2009-11-30 16:09:02 点击数:

形象权的创设及其民法保护
Studies on Creation and Civil Law Protection of Image Right
【摘要】 长期以来,基于人格——财产二元权利划分理论,人格利益或人的利益只被看作无财产利益,纯精神范畴的利益。为了保护民事主体人格要素商业化利用的权利,美国从隐私权中分化出公开权以实现对该权利的保护,此后该理论被世界各国学者发扬光大。公开权又被称作“形象权”、“商品化权”、“广义形象权”,是指对自然人的肖像、姓名、声音等人格要素和虚构人物形象进行商业化利用的权利,理论界普遍认为它的权利性质是财产权。但是随着民法理论对人格—财产二元理论的突破、司法实践中对死者人格利益的保护,广义形象权理论已经失去其存在基础。随着市场经济的快速发展和社会文明的进步,在人格权领域中,一些标表民事主体人格特征的形象利益被开发利用并带来可观的经济利益,传统意义上的具体人格权体系的构造及其内容都已无法涵盖民事主体的形象利益,无法适应民事主体形象利益在公开化形势面前的保护需要。为维护在市场经济下屡受侵害的民事主体的形象人格利益,各国立法与司法实践相继作出回应,形象权的概念应运而生。为了与广义形象权区别,理论界将此形象权称为“狭义形象权”。形象是区别于肖像、姓名、声音等人格要素的独立人格要素,是通过肖像、姓名、声音、独特的装扮、动作等具有指示作用的形象要素在人们心中留下的整体印象,以表示或表现相应的自然人。不仅自然人享有形象利益,法人和其他组织也享有形象利益。形象是独立的人格要素,一般人格权不能对其进行周延的保护,形象利益也无法被姓名权、肖像权所覆盖,因此我们国家有必要创设形象权以实现对形象利益的保护。本文正文共分三个部分。第一部分,形象权的争议及其基础理论。形象权起源于美国的隐私权,后来被广泛的称为商品化权,是形象被商业化利用的权利。形象权演变至今,有学者认为形象权分为狭义形象权和广义形象权,而狭义形象权是以形象利益为客体的具体人格权,笔者对此表示赞同,并以狭义形象权为研究对象,借助于国内外大量事例对形象权保护的对象—形象概念进行了界定,形象是区别于肖像、姓名、声音等人格要素的独立人格要素,是通过肖像、姓名、声音、独特的装扮、动作等具有指示作用的形象要素在人们心中留下的整体印象,以表示或表现相应的自然人。具有整体性和外在性。形象权与姓名权、肖像权既有区别又有联系。当李健吾对二三十年代的中国现实主流游离不定而找不到实际归宿之时,1931年,他靠着父执辈和亲朋好友的帮忙得以成功出国。在法国留学的两年时间里,一方面,他日夜研读福楼拜、莫里哀、司汤达等人的作品,外国文艺思潮的影响使他超越了普罗文学的视界;另一方面,远离了中国当时的现实环境,他不必为趋当时之势而费力追赶当时文学潮流,使他有更多时间去实践他自己的创作技巧与风格。在他留法期间完成的最重要的一个三幕剧《村长之家》,这个剧本与李健吾以前的剧作明显不同,故事情节由简单变为复杂,人物性格由单一变为多重,剧情发生的背景也不再是城市,而是“华北乡间某村镇上”,实际上就是以他的故乡安邑西曲马村为蓝本。因此,《村长之家》被公认为是李健吾留法时期最重要的剧本,是他戏剧创作上的一个分水岭。1934年作者创作了喜剧精灵《这不过是春天》,这不仅是他的传世之作,而且也是他平生所作的第一部喜剧作品。剧作以相对轻捷的方式表现了自我和人性复归的主题,随后他一发不可收拾。前后共创作了40多部剧作及改编剧,为中国现代话剧的发展作出了杰出的贡献。那究竟是何原因促使作者出现这种转向,使其戏剧前后创作发生如此明显的不同呢?虽说内因也即李健吾本人的个性成因是促使其创作发生变化的根本原因,但外因也起到? 

【Abstract】 For a long time, based on the theory of personality - property dual right division, personality benefits or benefits of people has be seen as non-property interests, which is only the interests of pure spirit. For the protection of the right of "commercialization of use",the personality element of the civil subject is known as the "image right ",the USA split up publicity right from the privacy right to protect this right,then this theory is very popular in the world. However, with a breakthrough in the theory of binary property in the civil law theory of personality, in the judicial practice, the protection of interests of the deceased person of the image right in broad sense has now lost its theoretical foundation. With the rapid market's economic development and social progress of civilization, in the field of personality rights, a number of image benefits of personality characteristics of civil subjects have been developed and bring considerable economic benefits, the traditional sense of the tectonic personality system structure and its contents are not covered by the image of the main benefits of civil subject and can not adapt to the protection needed for the image benefits of the civil subject benefits in the open situation. For the maintenance of the image benefits of the civil subject in the market economy, the legislative and judicial practice have responded to the concept, and the image right comes into being. In order to distinguish between the image right in the broad sense, in the theoretical circles this image right is named as "the image of the right to narrow." Image are different from the portrait, name, voice and other elements of the independent character of personality factors, through the portrait, name, voice and unique dress, action instructions, such as the role of elements left in people's minds to express the performance of the natural person. Not only natural persons enjoy the benefits of the image, but also legal persons and other organizations enjoy the image interest. The image of the personality is a independent factor, general personality can not have comprehensive protection, and the image of interest can not be covered by the right of name and portrait, so we need to create the image right in order to achieve the protection of the image benefits.This article is divided into three parts. The first part,the concept of the image right. It is originated in the United States from the right of privacy, which was later referred to as the commercialization right,image is used for commercial purpose. With a large number of cases at home and abroad,the author definites the protection object of image right-the image concept is different from the portrait, name, voice and other elements which is the independent character of personality factors, through the portrait, name, voice and unique dress, action, etc. indicative of the image elements left the overall impression in people's minds to express the natural person with integrity and externality nature.The second part,the need to create the right image and importance. A protected interest is covered with "right" jacket in the civil law system, the most important criterion is that whether the interests of the personality are an independent property which can be covered by other characters or not. The image benefit of civil subject is inherit and produce for the special personality,which has its own independent interests of the character, but the image of the role of factors including the names of the instructions, portraits and other elements of personality, have their own characters. of iamge benefits of civil subject is the maintain of integrity of the independent personality.The third part,the civil law protection of the image right. The image right is a new type of moral rights, which has many and complex ways of infringement, and it is difficult to identify, especially for the current popular "show copying" and other acts of nature that should be treated differently, to mimic the activities of others which engage in profit-making which cause confusion and mistake, should be recognized as a tort. The protection term of the image right should be used in the combination of general terms and the terms of special legislation, the except provisions should be based on the protection for 50 years for the property interests the deceased image. 

【关键词】 形象权; 形象; 形象要素; 人格权; 形象混淆
【Key words】 Image Right; Image; Image Right Factor; Personality Right; Image Confusion
  形象权的创设及其民法保护

内容摘要 4-6
Abstract 6-7
引言 9-10
一、形象权的争议及其基础理论 10-26
    (一) 关于形象权概念的争议 10-13
    (二) 独立人格要素—形象 13-22
    (三) 形象权的概念和特征 22-23
    (四) 形象权的内容 23-24
    (五) 形象权与肖像权、姓名权的区别 24-26
二、创设形象权的必要性 26-32
    (一) 侵害形象权行为广泛存在和我国形象利益保护的滞后 26-29
    (二) “一般人格权”的局限与形象利益的独立属性 29-31
    (三) 创设形象权有利于增强民事主体的权利意识 31-32
三、形象权的民法保护 32-43
    (一) 形象权的侵权法保护 32-41
    (二) 形象权的合同法保护 41-43
结语 43-44
致谢 44-45
参考文献 45-47

返回栏目页:商法论文论文

设为主页】【收藏论文】【保存论文】【打印论文】【回到顶部】【关闭此页