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国际贸易中补贴的专向性标准研究

更新时间 2009-12-4 10:03:44 点击数:

国际贸易中补贴的专向性标准研究
A Study on Specificity Standards of Subsidies in International Trade
【摘要】 专向性标准在补贴认定中有着极其重要的意义,是采取反补贴措施的前提条件。通过专向性标准对补贴进行过滤筛选,既对补贴进行规制,同时也对反补贴措施进行限制。一方面,我们通过对投向特定企业或行业的补贴征收反补贴税,避免因补贴而带来的资源配置扭曲;另一方面,我们又不能对所有的补贴都征收反补贴税,因为不是所有的补贴都对资源配置带来了扭曲作用。而专向性标准恰恰为我们提供了这样一个判断的尺度,在一定程度上限制了反补贴申诉的数量,并可以避免各国因频繁过度地运用反补贴措施而引发激烈的贸易战。SCMA的专向性标准来源于美国专向性标准的立法与实践。美国是从立法上规定专向性标准的开创者,也是最为重要的实践者。SCMA规定区分法律专向性标准和事实专向性标准,与美国立法与实践中要求的法律专向性和事实专向性双重审查标准极为相似。在SCMA规定了专向性标准后,欧共体反补贴税法也引入了专向性标准的相关概念,并且在实践中加以运用。我国目前还没有对其他国家进行反补贴的实践,有关专向性标准的规定主要体现在我国相关的反补贴法律中,但这些规定还不是十分完善。一方面,美国和欧共体的专向性标准的立法和实践值得我国借鉴。另一方面,我国目前遭受的反补贴调查有增多的趋势。充分了解美国和欧共体在实践中依据专向性标准对补贴进行认定而提出反补贴措施的情况,有助于我国应对近几年来逐渐增加的反补贴调查。

【Abstract】 Specificity standard has a great significance in the subsidies determination,it is the premise to take countervailing measures.Through the specificity standard screening the subsidy measures,it's not only governs the subsidies measures,but also restricts the countervailing measures.On the one hand,we impose countervailing duties to the enterprises or industries which received specific subsidies,to avoid a result of distortion of the allocation of resources;On the other hand,we can not impose countervailing duties to all subsidies,because not all subsidies measures have distorted the allocation of resources.Specificity standard provides us with precisely such a yardstick to judge,to some extent,it limit the number of anti-subsidy complaint,and can avoid fierce trade war which caused by frequent excessive use of countervailing measures.SCMA' specificity standard came from the legislation and practice of the United States specificity standard.The United States is not only the legislative inaugurator but also the most important practitioners of specificity standard.SCMA distinguish the de jure specificity and the de facto specificity,it is very similar to the double examination criteria of the United States' legislation and practice.After SCMA's provision,the EC has also introduced the specificity standard into their countervailing duty Jaw,and applied it into practice.China currently has no countervailing practice experience on other countries,the related provisions of specificity standard is mainly reflected in the anti-subsidy laws,but they are not complete.On the one hand,it is worth learning the legislation and practice of specificity standard of the United States and the EC,On the other hand,there is a growing anti-subsidy investigation trend towards China.So it is very important to understand the situation how the United States and the EC take countervailing measures which based on their standard of specificity in their legislation and practice,it's also helpful for China that how to cope with the growing anti-subsidy investigations in recent years. 

【关键词】 专向性标准; 补贴; 反补贴; SCMA
【Key words】 Specificity Standard; Subsidies; Countervailing; SCMA
  国际贸易中补贴的专向性标准研究

中文摘要 3-4
英文摘要 4-5
引言 7-10
第一章 国际贸易中补贴的专向性标准概述 10-17
    第一节 补贴的法律定义探究 10-13
    第二节 专向性问题的来源 13-14
    第三节 专向性问题在补贴认定中的地位 14-17
第二章 WTO《补贴与反补贴措施协定》的专向性标准 17-35
    第一节 认定专向性的原则 17-19
    第二节 专向性标准的含义、分类 19-33
    第三节 专向性标准的价值分析 33-35
第三章 美国和欧共体有关专向性标准的法律规定与实践 35-47
    第一节 美国专向性标准的发展与实践 35-40
    第二节 欧共体专向性标准与实践 40-47
第四章 我国的专向性标准 47-52
    第一节 我国反补贴制度中的专向性标准分析 47-49
    第二节 我国反补贴制度中专向性标准的思考与改进 49-52
结语 52-53
参考文献 53-59
附录 59-60
后记 60-61

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